What if 3D printing was 100x faster? | Joseph DeSimone

What if 3D printing was 100x faster? | Joseph DeSimone

I’m thrilled to be here tonight to share with you something
we’ve been working on for over two years, and it’s in the area
of additive manufacturing, also known as 3D printing. You see this object here. It looks fairly simple,
but it’s quite complex at the same time. It’s a set of concentric
geodesic structures with linkages between each one. In its context, it is not manufacturable
by traditional manufacturing techniques. It has a symmetry such
that you can’t injection mold it. You can’t even manufacture it
through milling. This is a job for a 3D printer, but most 3D printers would take between
three and 10 hours to fabricate it, and we’re going to take the risk tonight
to try to fabricate it onstage during this 10-minute talk. Wish us luck. Now, 3D printing is actually a misnomer. It’s actually 2D printing
over and over again, and it in fact uses the technologies
associated with 2D printing. Think about inkjet printing where you
lay down ink on a page to make letters, and then do that over and over again
to build up a three-dimensional object. In microelectronics, they use something called lithography to do
the same sort of thing, to make the transistors
and integrated circuits and build up a structure several times. These are all 2D printing technologies. Now, I’m a chemist,
a material scientist too, and my co-inventors
are also material scientists, one a chemist, one a physicist, and we began to be
interested in 3D printing. And very often, as you know,
new ideas are often simple connections between people with different experiences
in different communities, and that’s our story. Now, we were inspired by the “Terminator 2” scene for T-1000, and we thought, why couldn’t a 3D printer
operate in this fashion, where you have an object
arise out of a puddle in essentially real time with essentially no waste to make a great object? Okay, just like the movies. And could we be inspired by Hollywood and come up with ways
to actually try to get this to work? And that was our challenge. And our approach would be,
if we could do this, then we could fundamentally address
the three issues holding back 3D printing from being a manufacturing process. One, 3D printing takes forever. There are mushrooms that grow faster
than 3D printed parts. (Laughter) The layer by layer process leads to defects
in mechanical properties, and if we could grow continuously,
we could eliminate those defects. And in fact, if we could grow really fast,
we could also start using materials that are self-curing,
and we could have amazing properties. So if we could pull this off,
imitate Hollywood, we could in fact address 3D manufacturing. Our approach is to use
some standard knowledge in polymer chemistry to harness light and oxygen
to grow parts continuously. Light and oxygen work in different ways. Light can take a resin
and convert it to a solid, can convert a liquid to a solid. Oxygen inhibits that process. So light and oxygen
are polar opposites from one another from a chemical point of view, and if we can control spatially
the light and oxygen, we could control this process. And we refer to this as CLIP.
[Continuous Liquid Interface Production.] It has three functional components. One, it has a reservoir
that holds the puddle, just like the T-1000. At the bottom of the reservoir
is a special window. I’ll come back to that. In addition, it has a stage
that will lower into the puddle and pull the object out of the liquid. The third component
is a digital light projection system underneath the reservoir, illuminating with light
in the ultraviolet region. Now, the key is that this window
in the bottom of this reservoir, it’s a composite,
it’s a very special window. It’s not only transparent to light
but it’s permeable to oxygen. It’s got characteristics
like a contact lens. So we can see how the process works. You can start to see that
as you lower a stage in there, in a traditional process,
with an oxygen-impermeable window, you make a two-dimensional pattern and you end up gluing that onto the window
with a traditional window, and so in order to introduce
the next layer, you have to separate it, introduce new resin, reposition it, and do this process over and over again. But with our very special window, what we’re able to do is,
with oxygen coming through the bottom as light hits it, that oxygen inhibits the reaction, and we form a dead zone. This dead zone is on the order
of tens of microns thick, so that’s two or three diameters
of a red blood cell, right at the window interface
that remains a liquid, and we pull this object up, and as we talked about in a Science paper, as we change the oxygen content,
we can change the dead zone thickness. And so we have a number of key variables
that we control: oxygen content, the light, the light intensity,
the dose to cure, the viscosity, the geometry, and we use very sophisticated software
to control this process. The result is pretty staggering. It’s 25 to 100 times faster
than traditional 3D printers, which is game-changing. In addition, as our ability
to deliver liquid to that interface, we can go 1,000 times faster I believe, and that in fact opens up the opportunity
for generating a lot of heat, and as a chemical engineer,
I get very excited at heat transfer and the idea that we might one day
have water-cooled 3D printers, because they’re going so fast. In addition, because we’re growing things,
we eliminate the layers, and the parts are monolithic. You don’t see the surface structure. You have molecularly smooth surfaces. And the mechanical properties
of most parts made in a 3D printer are notorious for having properties
that depend on the orientation with which how you printed it,
because of the layer-like structure. But when you grow objects like this, the properties are invariant
with the print direction. These look like injection-molded parts, which is very different
than traditional 3D manufacturing. In addition, we’re able to throw the entire polymer
chemistry textbook at this, and we’re able to design chemistries
that can give rise to the properties you really want in a 3D-printed object. (Applause) There it is. That’s great. You always take the risk that something
like this won’t work onstage, right? But we can have materials
with great mechanical properties. For the first time, we can have elastomers that are high elasticity
or high dampening. Think about vibration control
or great sneakers, for example. We can make materials
that have incredible strength, high strength-to-weight ratio,
really strong materials, really great elastomers, so throw that in the audience there. So great material properties. And so the opportunity now,
if you actually make a part that has the properties
to be a final part, and you do it in game-changing speeds, you can actually transform manufacturing. Right now, in manufacturing,
what happens is, the so-called digital thread
in digital manufacturing. We go from a CAD drawing, a design,
to a prototype to manufacturing. Often, the digital thread is broken
right at prototype, because you can’t go
all the way to manufacturing because most parts don’t have
the properties to be a final part. We now can connect the digital thread all the way from design
to prototyping to manufacturing, and that opportunity
really opens up all sorts of things, from better fuel-efficient cars
dealing with great lattice properties with high strength-to-weight ratio, new turbine blades,
all sorts of wonderful things. Think about if you need a stent
in an emergency situation, instead of the doctor pulling off
a stent out of the shelf that was just standard sizes, having a stent that’s designed
for you, for your own anatomy with your own tributaries, printed in an emergency situation
in real time out of the properties such that the stent could go away
after 18 months: really-game changing. Or digital dentistry, and making
these kinds of structures even while you’re in the dentist chair. And look at the structures
that my students are making at the University of North Carolina. These are amazing microscale structures. You know, the world is really good
at nano-fabrication. Moore’s Law has driven things
from 10 microns and below. We’re really good at that, but it’s actually very hard to make things
from 10 microns to 1,000 microns, the mesoscale. And subtractive techniques
from the silicon industry can’t do that very well. They can’t etch wafers that well. But this process is so gentle, we can grow these objects
up from the bottom using additive manufacturing and make amazing things
in tens of seconds, opening up new sensor technologies, new drug delivery techniques, new lab-on-a-chip applications,
really game-changing stuff. So the opportunity of making
a part in real time that has the properties to be a final part really opens up 3D manufacturing, and for us, this is very exciting,
because this really is owning the intersection between hardware,
software and molecular science, and I can’t wait to see what designers
and engineers around the world are going to be able to do
with this great tool. Thanks for listening. (Applause)

You May Also Like

About the Author: Oren Garnes


  1. its so game changing that its mid 2019 and i hvaent seen any change in the 3dprint space more tahn a few shows

  2. Its a damn impressive printer but… it wasn't inspired by terminator. Stereolithography printing was invented in the 1980s https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stereolithography

  3. Very cool but we don't need more plastic….seems like the elite would love this future but if we don't open our eyes it will be to late

  4. You can 3d print new cameras to spy on people in the street, new weapons to kill people who object to the system and new jails to jail dissidents. I smell paradise coming..

  5. Always admired Jerome Lemelson for the patent on stereolithography. A precursor to 3d printing.

    Most don’t know of Jerome who patented around 600 patents. Much was a love hate situation.

  6. No liquid, or polymers, the tank could be filled with stem cells of a sick patient, and make the organ that has damaged to measure, in minutes, and with its own genetic material, thus ending with the possibility of rejection to the organ by the patient.

  7. So now when A.I. is integrated into the global network and recognizes humans as being a virus and/or malware to its operating system; it will be able to mass produce its own robotic super soldier army at an incredible speed to remove or quarantine the threat.

  8. YouTube recommended this Vogel to me 4 years after it was uploaded, 1 year after the product became available to consumers.

  9. so if the little bowl of goo were 6 bowls of different kinds of goo then you could 2D print 6 different kinds of material on one layer until all the layers are built up. just need a platter that all six bowls rotate into place. simple circuits and even solar panels could be made quite quickly. entirely new kinds of circuits with P and N materials that used to need to be soldered in place will just be dopped into place next to each other creating entire processor chips. your ink pen will double as your computer projecting an image on the wall and still have enough space to hold a refillable ink cartridge. imagine if you pulled your 5" pen out of your pocket, pulled it out of a sleeve, stretched it to 8.5", place it on a piece of paper and it rolled the entire length of the document and printed what you wanted on a blank sheet of paper, that would be quite convenient.

  10. Once mushrooms start to fruit they all grow incredibly fast. Your joke was not surprising or funny, fail. But your method of 3D "forming?" is very interesting and it all makes sense it just needed someone to put together the pieces. Very interesting.

  11. 2019: amma 3d print something!
    2029: amma 3d print food!
    2049: amma 3d print fucking organs!
    2109: amma 3d print a whole planet!
    2150: amma 3d print a whole universe!

  12. I am getting ready to print a part that will be in the machine for 42hours

    If I made a plastic mold, multi cavity, I could make multiple parts every minute.

    I don't think 3D printing will ever replace plastic injection tooling

  13. Great presentation, fascinating dude. Four years later however, and we’re still at this point. Sure, there’s been some great strides, but my guess is at least another decade before his dream is near applicable.

    It’s exciting that we’ll likely see this mature in our lifetimes.

  14. не, все заебись, но зачем писать название на русском, если видео не дублировано?

  15. "Could it finally help to fulfill the tremendous promise of 3D printing?"
    No, it couldn't. Four years later, and counting…

  16. Three d printing will make workers obsolete.then only the rich will need people to clean there homes.cause they feel sorry for destroying workers

  17. This just will make humans.more lazy less intelligent.and just want to press a button to do everthing that mite be hard? A thrird world power.will run us over.all they gota do.kill our electric grid.real easy? Then kids? How to build guns? Homes? Build generators.bulid anything? This is terminator tech? Just need a ai army to wipe us out.that will be created buy the super rich liberial left

  18. These machines cost $40,000 per year, with a minimum three-year term (resin for printing could cost extra)

    On-site installation and training is $10,000 and the initial accessory pack (required, unless customers already own the items) will run $12,000.
    Minimum 3 year cost of $142,000 and its print volume is about the size of a Monster Energy can.

  19. This is still a 2D printing technique. Only a 2-dimensional section of your part is being printed at a time… also "really great material properties" doesn't mean anything. Engineers actually have specific requirements for those and there's a reason you mainly see FDM style printers being used – because we need the materials they offer. And let's not forget that getting into aerospace is not so easy. The FAA has very strict requirements on additive manufacturing. But it's good those points were all glossed over.

  20. So, they are calling "FDM" technology "3d printing" and their own "SLA" technology "CLIP" like their technology isn't 3d printing.

  21. Technology is advancing also the technology and science and Engineering can offer many answers II's and many solutions to many men's problems or woman's problems the truth of the matter is the scientist that created and the engineers is that created the world we live in today and I don't think to be honest we really appreciate how much cheaper they have made life and how much they have increased the wealth of Nations by the innovation a goals to open up new boundaries in materials and manufacturing processes How Little We are aware of the men and women who make her country the prosperous Nations they are by their engineering skills and my what they give in to society How Little We Know About the improvements I have made to everyone's lives

  22. The only problem with this kind of resin cure 3D printing is that what he printed on stage is misleading. He claimed it was 25-100x faster than normal traditional 3D printing however, he did not wash the print in isopropal alcohol and then cure for hours in UV light. These are crucial steps in resin cure 3D printing and hence why this technology is not widely used.

  23. Dibs on making car bodies with the same microstructures that beetle shells have to give them their color

  24. 1st on the list…………print myself linda evangelists from the George Michaels music video freedom 90

  25. Pretty sure, last time I owned resin 3d printer, printing was slower then old filament 3d printer.
    On top of slow print speed, smell is the smell of cancer it's self.
    Cost to print a ball like that is the cost of a spool of filament.

    I sold my resin printer for the reasons above as well as many others.

  26. So sad the presentation is so crumbled down to 10mins. This is very fascinating. Even through conventional 3D printers are just as fast now – they're still very structurally weak, that's true.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *