We’re Going to Detect More Gravitational Waves Than Ever Before, Here’s How

We’re Going to Detect More Gravitational Waves Than Ever Before, Here’s How


Oh hello! I’m just popping by with some of the most
recent exciting cosmological news: LIGO, already a scientific superstar for being the first
facility to successfully detect gravitational waves…is getting a quantum upgrade! That’s right–the facility that is already
considered one of the most advanced pieces of equipment on the planet is getting a roughly
$35 million upgrade. Projected to go into use around 2024, the
enhancements to LIGO could double its already impressive detection power. We went into more detail about how LIGO works
in another video of mine that we’ll link at the end of this video, but basically: there
are two LIGO facilities in two different states in the US. Each facility has two 4-kilometer-long arms,
down which scientists bounce a laser, towards a mirror at the other end. Then when the light bounces back and the beams
cross one another, the light waves should cancel each other out. But, if there’s an extremely subtle shift
in the universe—and we’re talking EXTREMELY subtle–like a gravitational wave—the two
waves won’t cancel each other out. The mirrors will have shifted enough that
the light waves are out of sync in a way that we can measure. Based on the results that are recorded by
the detector, scientists can then interpret the data to see if the facility has detected
a gravitational wave: a ripple in space time caused by a huge astrophysical event like
the collision of cosmological objects like neutron stars and black holes. Obviously a problem here is making sure the
readings you’re detecting are really gravitational waves, not just something like the natural
vibration of the earth. And while LIGO already has lots of successful
measures in place to prevent the measurements from being interfered with by things that
are NOT gravitational waves, it could always get better. Additionally, some of the LIGO improvements
are an effort to address the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, or the idea that it’s impossible
to exactly measure more than one aspect of a phenomenon. For example, any attempt to precisely measure
the velocity of an electron will, according to Heisenberg, disrupt its trajectory. You couldn’t also measure the electron’s
position and have it be unaffected by your measurement of the velocity. Basically, you can’t measure two things
at once and have them both be accurate. The principle, in principle, applies to everything,
from your car to your molecules, but it’s only really significant for things on microscopic
or more often, subatomic scales. This is relevant because the light beams that
LIGO’s calculations rely on have two different important aspects that both need to be measured
in order to get a good reading. Its phase, which is the light’s position
at a given point in time, and its amplitude, which can be defined as its intensity. And because we’re trying to measure more
than one aspect of these light beams, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle can cause
some additional murkiness around detections—making it even more difficult to pick out gravitational
waves from other, non-gravitational wave noise. To solve this problem? In the upgraded facility, LIGO will start
using quantum ‘squeezed’ light. This ‘frequency-dependent squeezing’ technique
will hopefully minimize fluctuations in the light’s phase, making the measurements of
the light’s amplitude more accurate—minimizing the effect of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. The upgrade also includes new mirrors with
advanced coatings, specially designed to even further reduce any extra noise caused by heat. These improvements are what will take this
history-making facility from LIGO to ALIGO+—the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave
Observatory Plus. The changes not only mean that scientists
could catch a gravitational wave every day, but could also be able to detect smaller events,
events happening farther away in space, and know way more about what the events were like! Were the black holes spinning when they crashed
into each other? Burning questions we may soon actually get
to know the answer to. Ultimately, this means more concrete evidence
in our search to uncover the mysteries of extreme physics in space, which gives us more
insight into the universe both as it is now, and as it came to be. Like we mentioned before, check out this video
here on some drama on LIGO’s measuring techniques, and make sure you come back to Seeker for
all your gravitational wave updates–like the LIGO facility in India that’s planned
for 2025! As always, thanks for watching and we’ll
see you for the next one.

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About the Author: Oren Garnes

100 Comments

  1. I am so glad that we can increase our studies into astronomy! I am so glad to hear the improvements we are making!

  2. What are the engineering challenges that the upgrade faces that would make it take so long to build?

  3. Why don’t they drill down 2km and put a mirror down in the ground so they can detect the gravitational waves in 3 dimensions? That would surely help detect where they are coming from.

  4. Idk why we would really need to detect the waves after proving the theory I expected it to end. If theres more studys that could lead to proving more theorys than fine if not dont waste money it's been 35 years or more now and a lot of money spent on ligo.

  5. Alright. It's been long enough. Where is Trace? Sabbatical? Long service leave? Protracted etymological sidebar?

  6. Ripples in space time caused by disturbances out in space.
    That's assuming we live in a stable space time continuum.
    I've often wondered why land animals don't grow to the size of dinosaurs any more.
    Was the mass of our planet changed affecting the gravity or has the constant of gravity changed since then due to something else?
    Awsome video! Please keep them coming.

  7. Wow, I did a class paper in graduate school about quantum squeezing of laser light. That is so awesome that they are using it for LIGO. (FYI, I love the dress…I want one 🙂

  8. One thing scientist don’t know is that the powerful gravitational wave causes shift of an object by tiny bit! This could actually be measured but chances depends on luck! E=MC square actually works on that. Force of the wave and the energy exerted at a given point actually doubles! Fascinating

  9. So…. If the whole gravitational universe is nonsense and we actually have a electro-magnetic universe or plasma based universe, what then is ligo measuring? Other than gullibility of those who eat this shit up like scripture or provide funding?

  10. How close does these astrophysical events need to be for us to feel the vibration? Can we feel the space distorting?

  11. What if you linked ALIGO+ centers all over the eath and turn the planet into a 3D wibbly-wobbly detector.

  12. Its not measuring gravitational waves… That's absolutely fiction. They are measuring light and distortion of light. Not physics from space no more like the interference of your house hold microwave to your cell phone.

  13. How minimizing fluctuations in the phase would improve the reading of the amplitude? that’s exactly the opposite of how the uncertainty principle works

  14. Why not do this gravitational waves testing in space? There is no thing from Terra that is interfering.

  15. Hello Seeker! I love your videos! Congrats!
    Can you please sign up to receive contributions from Brave users? I have already send you 5 BAT (1usd) and I will surely send more for you amazing work!
    Have a nice day! 🙂

  16. Im about to break the speed of light, under $5000. Except for land where experiment is taking place, that may cost a little more.

  17. Just the first of many scientific methods that will help us all to understand the electromagnetic nature of our reality.

    Climate change is about to change to keep up with the new data. So much more for us to learn. Exciting times!

  18. I live 15 minutes away from LIGO in Louisiana!! On the 3rd Saturday of every month, they let people tour the facility free of charge and have awesome science exhibits. Most people around here don't even know about LIGO unfortunately

  19. Did they just build a Heisenberg Compensator? Everytime something goes wrong with the Teleporters in Star Trek its always the Heisenberg Compensator needing to be replaced.

  20. What if we are wrong? I mean we can't actually prove that matter attracts matter. I know we have used complex mathematical formulas to rationalize it's existence but is their any scientific experiment done that can prove it? I've seen the whole stretched fabric thing with a heavy ball in the middle and things slowly getting pulled to it but this doesn't actually adhere to the scientific method. And when explaining why things fall to the Earth why doesn't relative density explain everything? A pencil is heavier than the air around it so it falls down (down being relative) and a helium balloon will rise. Does any one have any answers that don't require any presuppositions?

  21. Amazing that they can detect things that do not exist. Many scientists wonder how they will spin this when it's established beyond any doubts that gravitational waves do not exist.

    With some "scientists" it's like they tell you God exists and there is no way to prove otherwise. You ask for proof and they keep telling you "we see all the stars and galaxies and that is the proof that God exists", lol. Unfortunately, LIGO is not alone.

  22. By the way the square of the absolute value of the amplitude of light is the probability density when the 1×4 or 4×1 vector or 4 vector is normalized.

  23. "Detect More Gravitational Waves Than Ever Before" is kind of a weird statement since the first gravitational wave was detected less than 4 years ago, and there have only been like six of them…

  24. This video is a nice description of how LIGO/VIRGO function, but the title lead me to believe there was a new use or phenomenon that it could measure…

  25. "Getting a quantum upgrade".. You realize "quantum" means small… Right?
    People seem to think adding "quantum" infront of something makes it epic.

  26. THIS IS What the RACIST WHITE SUPREMEST do with the MONIES stolen from the NON-WHITES. the would like you to believe these humans humane & intelligent, celebrity. THEY WORK WITH 7 FOR WHITE SUPREMEST to KILL You. HARVEST YOUR LIFE FORCE. this is why some must find themselves, and many haven’t. All life in the known universes is dominated controlled subjugated manipulated educated eradicated motivated BY RACIST WHITE SUPREMEST. YOUR LOST, YOUR ENERGIES ARE PRISONERS HARNESSED & HARVESTED . ONLY IN FACING AND DESTRUCTION OF WHITE SUPREMACY CAN WE BE FOUND.

  27. Why does even a science story talk about " getting a quantum upgrade" , meaning a large boost in funding. When quantum deals with the very small?

  28. Super cute, super smart, super articulate, classy and geeky….will you marry me? 💕🥰🤓 I’ve got a MAJOR thing for girls who can explain sophisticated cutting-edge science without missing a beat. You are truly admirable and I am of course subscribing.

  29. When a gravitational wave is detected, can the physicists there gather enough information about it to tie it to a known point in the sky and associate it with light (etc) waves from an event they can take more imaging of using a telescope?

  30. Quantify "subtle"… We're talking about electromagnetism (light) here… What if the "subtle shift" is equivalent to a multiple of the wavelength – then wouldn't a shift (i.e. gravitational wave) be missed since wave-cancellation would still occur?
    Or, are the waves measured on a 3D-axis and not a 2D as portrayed in the video animations?

  31. How does the mirror work?
    How do you split a single beam off of, and through, a mirror at the same time?
    Is this one of those 2-way (see-through) mirrors?
    If so, wouldn't the light interact with the metallic (reflective) particles that create the partial reflectivity?
    Or, does the beam project onto some sort of edge or hole in the mirror where part of the beam is unobstructed (traveling onward) and the rest of the beam is reflected down the other path?

  32. She looks like Pluto with glasses
    https://www.picclickimg.com/d/l400/pict/264223532543_/PLUTO-Wearing-Glasses-Nerds-Rock-Head-Collection.jpg

  33. If gravity waves have peaks and troughs, does that mean the peaks have repulsive gravity associated with them?

  34. Seeker: One of the most reputed STEM channels.
    Seeker's hosts: Cool and eccentric(=special) with a bunch MSc degrees in top reputed universities.
    Seeker's comment section: 99% dumb commenters.

    Back when it was Discovery's Seeker, the comment section was polish and enthusiastic. Now it's all about stupid jokes.

  35. Does principles of gravitational waves applies to smaller objects like stars, planets, satellites or even asteroids?

  36. unless you do LIGO experiment in space it wont work cause land masses experience mini earthquakes all the time and thats going to screw up the results

  37. shame they pick up electromagnetic signals….as thats what laser interferometry is for.
    They dont pick up "gravity"…they measure em changes.

  38. That’s just space-time wave not a gravitational wave . If gravitational wave have really existed stars probably cannot move around each other.

  39. If you put a black hole in between sun and earth, and you make the sun disappear. The gravitational wave will travel through black hole and reach earth in speed of light, but the sun light will be distorted by the black hole and circulate black hole several times before it leaves black hole orbit and went towards earth. which means the gravity of sun will disappear earlier than sun light. Also, if you put a large body of water or cosmic dust in-between sun and earth, light will slow down, but gravitational wave won't slow down.

  40. So suddenly LIGO is a scientific superstar. After detecting NOTHING for years and years and years, suddenly they keep detecting colliding black holes and neutron stars left and right. The funny thing is neither does exist since neither has been proven to exists SCIENTIFICALLY. Both exist ONLY thanks to mathemagics.

    But just when the grant money was starting to dry up, EUREKA, colliding black holes and they find out exactly what happened in the last tenths of the last second when two black holes collided some 1,5 billion light-years away. And let's just keep all the scientists opposing these ridiculous findings quite and in the background. Obviously, cosmology needs hero stories such as LIGO to keep that grant money pouring in.

    ALL this when you consider that today's cosmology gets even our closest object, comets, utterly wrong. NO, they are NOT dirt ice balls but rocky bodies, which has been proven many times by the modern equipment and satellites from the same institutions (NASA, ESA, etc), hence proving themselves being wrong. P67 is the final proof of comets being rocky bodies. That tail is NOT ice melting, heated by the sun.

    After 40 years of believing in science, it's such a disappointment when you find out that the scientific community is as corrupt and money hungry as our politicians, if not more.

  41. I want to know what the moon does to it, what seismic waves do to it, what change in heat causing subtle shrinking and expanding does to it, and what sounds do to it

  42. I like so much the peacfull gravitational waves that come from the soul you could be perfect on Bolivia Chile and Argentina Lithuim and the posibilities on developing bateries for Tesla cheapear and most efficient watch this i travelled in this countries and mostly the people the indians are really lovely peaceful it is in the cities where things are not so good it could be fantastic if you can film too for BBC https://youtu.be/ymW9yIyNNAo

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