President Obama at YALI Mandela Washington Fellowship

President Obama at YALI Mandela Washington Fellowship


GRACE ALACHE JERRY: Join me this morning as we welcome the President of the United States of America. Barack Obama! (Applause and cheers) THE PRESIDENT: Well, hello, everybody! (Applause.) AUDIENCE: Happy birthday to you! Happy birthday
to you! Happy birthday, Mr. President, happy birthday to you! (Applause.) THE PRESIDENT: Thank you. Everybody sit down.
Thank you so much. (Applause.) Well, this is a good crowd here! (Applause.) First of all, can everybody please give Grace
another big round of applause. (Applause.) Not only does she do
incredibly inspiring work in Nigeria, but I have to say, following Grace is a little
bit like following Michelle. (Laughter.) She’s so good that you kind of feel bad when
you’re walking out, because you’re thinking, I’m not going to be that good. (Laughter.)
But she’s just one example of the incredible talent that’s in this room. And to all of you, I know that you’ve been
here in the United States for just a few weeks, but let me say on behalf of the American people,
welcome to the United States. We are thrilled to have you here. (Applause.) And your visit comes at a perfect time, because,
yes, it’s soon my birthday and that’s a very important thing. (Laughter.) But that’s not
the main reason it’s a perfect time. The main reason is because, as many of you know, I
just returned from Africa. And it was my fourth trip to sub-Saharan Africa, more than any
other U.S. President. And I was proud to be the first U.S. President to visit Kenya, — (applause)
— the first to visit Ethiopia, — (applause) — the first to address the African Union,
which was a great honor. (Applause.) And the reason I’ve devoted so much energy
to our work with the continent is, as I said last week, even as Africa continues to confront
many challenges, Africa is on the move. It’s one of the fastest-growing regions in the
world. Africa’s middle class is projected to grow to more than one billion consumers.
With hundreds of millions of mobile phones and surging access to the Internet, Africans
are beginning to leapfrog old technologies into new prosperity. The continent has achieved
historic gains in health, from fighting HIV/AIDS to making childbirth safer for women and babies.
Millions have been lifted from extreme poverty. So this is extraordinary progress. And young people like you are driving so much
of this progress — because Africa is the youngest continent. I saw the power of youth
on my trip. In Kenya, Richard Ruto Todosia helped build Yes Youth Can, one of the county’s
most prominent civil society groups, with over one million members. At the Global Entrepreneurship
Summit in Nairobi, Shadi Sabeh spoke about how he started Brilliant Footsteps Academy
in Nigeria, which uses education to fight religious extremism and provide more opportunities
for Muslim youth. I met Judith Owigar, an entrepreneur who co-founded a nonprofit that
trains young women living in the slums of Nairobi in computer programming and graphic
design — and then helps place them in tech jobs. So I saw the talent of young people all across
the continent. And as President, I want to make sure that even as we’re working with
governments, we’re also helping to empower young Africans like all of you. And that’s
why I launched YALI — Young African Leaders Initiative — (applause) — to help you access
the resources and the training and the networks that you need to become the next generation
of leaders in all areas — in civil society, in business, in government. And the response has been overwhelming. So
far, more than 140,000 young people across Africa have joined our YALI network — so
young Africans with new ideas can connect with each other, and collaborate and work
together to put their plans into action. And I want to welcome all of the YALI network
members across Africa who are watching this town hall today. I’m proud of all of you.
I’m proud that we’ve made so much progress together, after just a few years. (Applause.) And last year, I said we’d launch a new
set of tools for our YALI network. So today, we’ve got more than 30 online lessons available
on everything from public speaking to how to write a business plan, mentoring, new ways
to network across Africa, around the world, new training sessions, meetings with experts
on how to launch a startup. And we’re launching three new online Mandela Washington Fellowship
Institute courses so that all members of the YALI network can access some of the great
ideas that you’ve been sharing. Last year, I said that we would create YALI
Regional Leadership Centers across Africa to provide skills, networks, and opportunities
to even more young African leaders. And in Kenya, I had a chance to visit the Regional
Leadership Center in Nairobi. Just this morning, we opened a new center in Accra. And two more
will be opened by the end of the year — in Pretoria and in Dakar. (Applause.) Last year, I said we would do even more to
support young entrepreneurs with grants to help you start a business or nonprofit, and
with new training for thousands of aspiring entrepreneurs in small towns and rural areas.
So at the recent Global Entrepreneurship Summit in Nairobi, I announced that we secured more
than $1 billion in new commitments from banks and philanthropists to support emerging entrepreneurs
around the world, including in Africa — with half the money going to support women and
young people. (Applause.) And last year, I welcomed our first class
of Mandela Fellows. This year, the response was overwhelming again — nearly 30,000 applied.
And today I’m honored to welcome you, the second Mandela Washington Fellows class. We’re
on track to double the Mandela Washington Fellowship program to 1,000 fellows by next
year. (Applause.) And I know you’ve been busy. Over the past
few weeks, at schools and businesses all across America, you’ve been taking courses, developing
the skills you’ll need to make your ideas a reality, so that you’re able to continue
the great work that you’re already doing, but take it to the next level. That’s what Brian Bwembya of Zambia plans
to do. Where’s Brian? Where is he? (Applause.) There he is right there. So Brian uses music
to advocate against things like gender-based violence and to educate youth on HIV/AIDS.
(Applause.) So while in the U.S., he’s learned about our health care system, met the founder
of an American HIV/AIDS organization, and now he plans to start a record label for music
about social change. So, Brian, we’re proud to be your partner. (Applause.) Or we’ve got Kadijah Diallo of Guinea. Where
is Kadijah? (Applause.) There she is. So Kadijah helped lead UNICEF’s media campaign to stop
the spread of Ebola. And with the management skills that she gained at Wagner College,
she wants to work on improving the lives of women and girls back home in Guinea. So we
are proud to be your partner. (Applause.) Or we’ve got Jamila Mayanja of Uganda. Are
you posing? (Laughter.) She’s posing. Jamila is not a fashion model — that’s not — (laughter)
— she started a door-to-door laundry company to employ more youth and teach them entrepreneurial
skills. And she hopes to take what she learned during her time at Dartmouth University to
meet her goal of getting 1,000 youth to work in or run their own business. So we’re proud
to be your partner, Jamila. (Applause.) So that’s just a sampling of the incredible
projects that are being done by fellows all across Africa. So this program is going to
help all of you make a real difference back home. But Fatou Ba Ndiour from Senegal — (applause)
— where’s Fatou? So Fatou wrote me a letter and she said, if the real value of YALI is
for young people to learn from others, then maybe we should start sending some young Americans
to Africa also. (Applause.) And she made the point, not just to help poor communities as
they usually do, “but to learn from other societies, with humility” — which I thought
is absolutely true. So I have good news, Fatou. From now on, YALI
will give Americans an opportunity. (Applause.) Next summer, up to 80 young American leaders
will join YALI and go to Africa to learn from you and your countries. (Applause.) And you
guys are going to have to look after them when they’re there. (Laughter.) Show them
good places — but not to have too much fun. (Laughter.) They need to be doing some work
while they’re there. So these connections and partnerships and
friendships, they forge an understanding that brings our peoples closer together. After
six weeks here, some of you are now officially Texas Longhorns or Notre Dame Fighting Irish.
(Applause.) You’ve shared African cooking with your American friends, but you’ve also
had a burger and a hotdog at Fourth of July celebrations. (Laughter.) I’m told many
of you went bowling for the first time. AUDIENCE: Yes! THE PRESIDENT: I hear it didn’t go that
well. (Laughter.) There were a few strikes. By the way, there was at least one marriage
that came out of last year’s class. (Applause.) So who knows what might happen here. (Laughter.) So as your time in America comes to a close,
I want you to remember this is really just the beginning. We just started this. And the
truth is that our greatest challenges — whether it’s inclusive development, or confronting
terrorism, dealing with conflict, climate change, increasing women’s rights, children’s
rights — these are bigger than any one nation or even one continent. Our hope is, is that 10, 15, 20 years from
now, when you’ve all gone on to be ministers in government, or leaders in business, or
pioneers of social change, that you’ll still be connecting with each other, that you’ll
still be learning from each other, and that together, you’ll be reaching back and helping
the next generation — that you’ll not only be making a difference in your own countries,
but you’ll be the foundation of a new generation of global leadership, a generation that’s
going to be working together across borders to make the world safer and more prosperous
and more peaceful and more just. That’s my hope for you. We’ve brought you here because we benefit
from your leadership, but we’re counting on you to work together to make sure that
you’re also reaching back to those who are going to be coming behind you. Couldn’t
be prouder of you. So with that, let me take some questions,
all right? Thank you very much. (Applause.) All right. So here are the — I think you’ve
been told how this works, but I’m going to just repeat it. I’m just going to call
on as many people as possible. When I call on you, introduce yourself, tell me what country
you’re from. Make your question relatively short — (laughter) — so that we can get
as many questions in as possible. And I’m going to go boy, girl, boy, girl — to make
sure that it’s fair. All right? Okay. So let me see who I’m going to start off with.
This is all such a good-looking group. I’m going to start with this young lady right
here. Right here. Right in the middle. Yes, there you go — with the African earrings.
Very appropriate. Q I’m from Kenya. THE PRESIDENT: Habari? Q Mzuri sana. Yes. And my question is, I’m
curious how you keep the balance in terms of your background as an African American
and the kind of struggles you’ve had to get over to get here — and being to married
Michelle Obama — she’s powerful and amazing — and as a father, as a husband. But you
seem to not let that interfere with your work, and you’ve been effective. So how do you
keep the balance? THE PRESIDENT: Well, first of all, I wouldn’t
be who I was without Michelle. So she’s my partner. (Applause.) That’s true professionally,
but that’s true in terms of my character and who I am. One of the things I’m very
proud of is the fact that I married someone who is strong, and talented, and opinionated,
and my equal. And part of the reason why that’s so important to me is because she’s the
role model now for my daughters. And so Malia and Sasha, they have expectations of being
strong and talented, and being treated as an equal by their partners as they get older
— much older. (Laughter.) The balance — I’ve written about this.
The balance isn’t always perfect. I think one of the things that my generation, but
now even more your generation, has to manage is, if you have two people working in the
house, outside the home, how do you manage that in a way that we’re both good parents,
we’re both able to succeed in our work. And what Michelle and I found was that we
had to recognize that at any given point in our careers, one person might sacrifice a
little bit — maybe this was a time that she really had to focus on something, and so I
had to cover for her more. There were times where I was able to do something and she had
to handle things more. Now, I’m not suggesting that it’s been
completely equal, because I’m the first one to acknowledge that she’s probably made
more sacrifices, given the nature of a political career, than I have. But what I’ve learned
from her is that if she doesn’t feel respected and fulfilled, then I’m going to end up
being less successful, ultimately. And that’s something that I think that men in Africa,
in particular — men everywhere — (laughter) — but men in Africa — I’ve spoken about
this a lot. The best measure of how a country does economically in terms of development
is how does it treat its women. (Applause.) And as I said in a speech — a couple of the
speeches that I gave while I was in Kenya and Ethiopia — if you’re mistreating your
women, then you’re just holding yourself back, you’re holding yourself down. You
may have some false sense of importance, but ultimately you don’t benefit if women are
being discriminated against, because that means when they’re working, your family
is going to have less income. If they’re not educated, that means your children are
less likely to be well educated, because, typically, the mother is the first educator
of a child. So if they see you disrespecting your wife, then what lesson is your — not
just your girls, but what lessons are your sons learning from you? And so this is something that I really think
everybody, especially the young generation of African men, have to learn and internalize.
And I want to see more men creating peer pressure among themselves. If you see a friend of yours,
a classmate, one of your buddies abusing a woman, you have to say something. You have
to ostracize them and say that’s not acceptable. Because, ultimately, this is not just an issue
of laws — although here in the United States we’re still fighting for equal pay for equal
work; we’re still fighting to make sure that women have the same opportunities as
men — but it’s also a matter of culture and what our expectations are. And your generation
is going to have to change expectations. You do not lift yourself up by holding somebody
else down. And that’s especially true within your own family and the people that you’re
closest to. (Applause.) All right. That young men right there, in
the striped shirt. Yes, you. Q Thank you, Mr. President. I am from Rwanda.
(Applause.) THE PRESIDENT: You have a little cheering
section here. (Laughter.) Got the flags. Q Mr. President, there is a big problem of
climate change, and research has showed that Africa will be the most vulnerable continent
to climate change in the next decades. Africa is the continent which is responsible to climate
change mitigation, and it is reducing the greenhouse gases and the global warming. And
I saw that Africa was the last continent to get the funding for climate change mitigation
and adaptation. So my question is to ask you what is the plan of the United States of America
to empower Africa so that our community can adapt themselves to the climate change in
the next future? Thank you. (Applause.) THE PRESIDENT: Well, first of all, this generation
has to understand that climate change is going to be one of the critical issues that you
face. Now, oftentimes you’ll hear people say, well, environmental issues, climate change,
we don’t have time to worry about that right now because we have much more urgent issues
— we have to educate our children, we have to feed people, we have to develop — maybe
later we can worry about environmental issues — which I understand why a lot of African
countries and poorer countries in Asia or Latin America or other places would say that,
because historically, that’s basically what the United States and developed countries
did. The United States used to be terribly polluted.
If you went to Los Angeles, you couldn’t — it was like Beijing is now. It was very
hard to breathe if you ran outside. You had lakes and rivers that were so polluted that
one of them caught fire. (Laughter.) That’s serious; that’s some pollution there. The
same is true in London when London was first developing during the Industrial Revolution,
because of all the coal that was being burned, and the soot. Here’s the problem. Whether it’s fair
or not, the issue of climate change is not like traditional environmental issues in the
sense that’s it’s just isolated in one area. Global climate change will affect everybody.
And because the changes could be so severe, frankly, the countries that are most likely
to be adversely affected are the poorer countries because they have less margin for error. So if you have changing weather patterns in,
let’s say, the Indian Subcontinent, and the monsoon rains shift, suddenly you could
have millions of people whose crops completely fail. Well, the same is true in Africa — if
rain patterns and drought starts changing, subsistence farmers are completely vulnerable.
If you are in coastal communities, and the oceans begin to rise, millions of people could
be displaced. So this is something that everybody is going
to have to take seriously. Now, what we’re going to be doing is, here in the United States,
we are initiating some of the most aggressive action to start reducing the emission of carbon
that produces climate change. There’s going to be a Paris conference later this year in
which we’re organizing China and other countries that are big carbon emitters to participate,
and set targets for reduction of carbon pollution. Now, Africa, per capita, doesn’t produce
that much carbon. So some African countries have said, well, why should we have to do
anything? Well, the answer is, is that you have to project where you’re going to be
20 years from now or 30 years from now. If you get locked in now in, for example, the
way you producing energy that’s producing a lot of carbon, given the youth of Africa
and its rising population, you could end up being the major carbon emitter if you don’t
take plans now. So what we’re saying is, learn from our
mistakes and find new, sustainable ways of generating energy that don’t produce carbon. When I was in Nairobi, I highlighted the work
we’re doing with something called Power Africa, which has generated billions of dollars
with the goal of electrification throughout sub-Saharan Africa. But part of what we’re
trying to encourage countries to do is don’t automatically take the old models; think about
new models of energy production, and try to leapfrog over the old models. So, for example, with solar energy, we were
looking at solar panels that you could send into rural areas, put on the roof of a hut,
and for the same price per day that people are purchasing kerosene, they could have a
small — solar panels and pack that generates light and provides what they need. And in
fact, it will pay for itself in a year, and then they’ll save money after that. And so, in the same way that you’ve seen
banking and financial transactions off smartphones, cellphones, leapfrogging some of the old ways
of doing business in advanced countries, the same has to be true for energy. And we want
to encourage new models. We are going to be providing — the United States and other wealthier
countries are going to be providing billions of dollars in money for adaptation and mitigation.
But what’s more urgent is how do we create the energy that’s needed for Africa’s growth
and development in a way that does not make the problem worse, but instead makes the problem
better. All right? (Applause.) Okay, this young lady
right here. You’ve got the mic coming. Q Hello. I’m from Mauritania and I’m 23 years
old. So my question is simple: You, as a President, and you as a citizen — a U.S. citizen, will
you, after leaving the White House, keep up this program? Because we still need it. (Applause.) THE PRESIDENT: Yes. It is a simple question,
and I’ve got a simple answer: Yes. (Applause.) Now, here’s what we’re going to try to do.
We want to institutionalize the program so that the next President and future Presidents
and the United States government continue to sustain the program. (Applause.) So that’s
going to be important. And since I still have this job for the next
18 months, I haven’t been completely focused on what I’m going to do afterwards. (Laughter.)
The first thing I’m probably going to do is I’m going to catch up on my sleep. (Laughter.)
So I’m going to do that for a couple months. (Laughter.) But I can guarantee you that one
of the things I’m interested in doing when I leave office is to continue to create these
platforms for young leadership across the globe, to network, get relationships, to work
together, to learn with each other. (Applause.) And by the way, it’s not just in Africa. So
we’ve set up a young leaders program in Asia. We’re doing the same thing in Latin America.
Because the goal is, eventually I want not only for there to be a network of thousands
of young African leaders who know each other across borders, are sharing best practices,
sharing ideas, but I also want you to know young leaders in Indonesia, or young leaders
in Chile, or young leaders around the globe. Because I said before, ultimately you’re going
to be global leaders, not just leaders in your own country. It begins in your own countries
where you can make your mark, but one of the powerful things about technology and the Internet
right now is you can learn and forge relationships and learn best practices from everyplace.
So if you’re an advocate for women’s rights, and you’re doing great work in Nigeria, it
may be that somebody in Burma can, on the Internet, see how you organized your campaign
and how you were able to finance it and what you were able to accomplish, and suddenly
what you’ve done in one country becomes a model for action all across the world. So this is going to be a top priority of mine.
I will definitely continue to be involved in that. All right? (Applause.) Let’s see, I’ve got to call on a man now.
Let’s see. Let’s see. I’m going to call on this guy right there. Yes, you right there
— just because I like that hat. (Laughter.) That’s a sharp-looking hat right there. Q I come from Madagascar. THE PRESIDENT: There you go. Q We Madagascar fellows are involved in the
environmental entrepreneurship. So what is the commitment of the United States towards
young entrepreneurship and climate change? THE PRESIDENT: Well, as I said before, we
are pledging — we’ve got a billion dollars for entrepreneurship; half of it we are going
to direct towards women entrepreneurs and young people who are entrepreneurs, because
they’ve been underrepresented in terms of access to capital. And as I mentioned to the
young man earlier, the opportunities for entrepreneurship related to clean energy, related to conservation
— which oftentimes, in a place like Madagascar, involves tourism and ecotourism — there’s
huge potential there if it’s done properly. So the key is, in some cases, just the access
to financing. But part of what you’ve learned, hopefully, with YALI is part of it is also
having a well-thought-out plan. Now, not everybody can afford to go to a fancy business school
and graduate and have all the credentials, but that doesn’t mean you don’t have a good
idea. And one of the things that we’re trying to do, particularly through online learning,
is to create some of the basic concepts for how a business or a nonprofit can get started,
how it can be properly managed, how you can do the accounting in a way that’s efficient.
We want to make sure that we are a continuing partner for you as you start your business
and you learn. And this is where these regional networks
that we’re setting up is also useful, because not only will we have online learning but
these regional hubs, initially in four regions of Africa, allow you to continue to network
and access through the U.S. embassy, or the chambers of commerce, or private sector participants
who are partnering with us, so that you can have hands-on mentoring and learning as you
are developing your business plans, and as you’re trying to move forward. The one thing, for those of you who are entrepreneurs
or aspiring entrepreneurs, to remember is all around the world, even in the United States,
not every idea succeeds. So if you want to be an entrepreneur and start a business, you
have to believe with all your heart that you’re going to succeed, but then when — and if
— one of the businesses fails, you’ve got to be able to get up, dust yourself off, figure
out what you’ve learned, and then start another business. And eventually, it’s from
continually refining your ideas and exploring what works and understanding what your market
is and what consumers are looking for, that eventually, you have a chance to succeed. Okay. It’s a young woman’s turn now. Well,
she’s just dancing over here, so we’ll have to call on her. (Laughter.) That doesn’t
mean, by the way, everybody should dance. (Laughter.) I just wanted to point that out.
Go ahead. Q Mr. President, thank you. I’m from Cameroon.
And I would like to find out if you will support Africa’s condition for permanency at the
U.N. Security Council. Thank you. (Applause.) THE PRESIDENT: So the Security Council was
formed after World War II, and obviously the world and the balance of power around the
world looked very different in 1945, 1946, ’47 than it does in 2015, ’16 and ’17.
So the United States is supportive in concept of modifications to the structure of the United
Nations Security Council. I will be honest with you — how that happens, and how you
balance all the equities is complicated. As a matter of principle, I would think that
there should at least be one representative from the African continent on the Security
Council, along with representatives from the other regions of the world and some of the
other powers that have emerged. I will tell you that — because, for example,
Latin America does not have a country that’s represented — it does get complicated, because
you have to figure out how — let me put it this way. Everybody probably thinks they should
be on it. And so even in Africa, if you started saying, okay, let’s say we should have an
African — is it South Africa? Is it Nigeria? Is it — see? (Laughter.) Uganda? See? Suddenly
everybody was thinking, well, why not me? The same is true in — Japan considers itself,
as one of the largest economies in the world, suitable. Brazil thinks it should be on. India,
the world’s largest democracy. So we’re going to have to design a process
whereby all these various legitimate arguments are sorted through. But what I very much believe
is that for the United Nations Security Council to be effective, it has to be more representative
of all the various trend lines that have occurred over the last several decades. One thing I will say, though, about the United
Nations — everybody wants a seat at the table, but sometimes people don’t want the responsibilities
of having a seat at the table. And that’s happening even now. And the one thing I’ve
learned, both in my personal life and in my political life, is that if you want more authority,
then you also have to be more responsible. You can’t wear the crown if you can’t
bear the cross. And oftentimes, in the United Nations — which
I’m very committed to, and the agencies there do a lot of really critical important
work — but when it comes to, okay, who’s going to actually step up and contribute to
peacekeeping, who’s going to actually write a check when it comes to making sure that
we’re dealing with the Ebola crisis, who’s going to show leadership in tackling climate
change — are you willing to speak out on issues even when it contradicts your own interests,
or when it’s politically hard, or when it’s uncomfortable — if you’re not willing to
do those things, this is not just something where, okay, I got a membership key to the
club and now I’m just going to show off how important I am. And you see that sometimes.
This happens — and sometimes it happens at our own agencies. On human rights, when I was in Kenya, I said
that it’s not enough for the United States always to be the heavy who has to point out
that it’s unsuitable for leaders to ignore their constitution and try to cling on to
power. Their neighbors have to speak up as well, even if it’s uncomfortable. (Applause.) So my attitude is, if you want to participate
then you have to recognize that you have broader responsibilities. And that’s something that
the United States, by the way, for all our occasional mistakes or flaws, or our policies
not perfect all the time, the one thing we do try to be is responsible. If there’s
an earthquake or a tornado or a hurricane somewhere, we’re there. We’re stepping
up. When Ebola happened, we stepped up, even when other people were kind of looking around
and trying to figure out, well, I don’t know, what should we do? And that is part of leadership. That’s true,
by the way, for you individually as well. You have to be willing to take some risks
and do some hard things in order to be a leader. A leader is not just a name, a title, and
privileges and perks. Let’s see, I think it’s a gentleman’s
turn, isn’t it? All right. This guy looks sharp, right here in the corner. I mean, that’s
a serious-looking coat. Look at that. (Applause.) That’s a good-looking coat. Don’t worry,
I’ll call on somebody who’s just wearing a suit at some point. (Laughter.) Q Thank you, Mr. President. I’m from Cameroon.
So we are very grateful for the American leadership in our fight against violent extremism and
the military response. So my question is, what kind of engagement — what kind of support
we can expect from you in building resilient communities, especially along the Sahel, where
we are grappling with those issues? THE PRESIDENT: Well, this is something that’s
very important. Look, the sources of violence around the world are multiple. And it’s
important for us to recognize that, sadly, the human race has found excuses to kill each
other for all sorts of reasons. In the continent of Africa, oftentimes it’s been along ethnic
and tribal lines. It has nothing to do with religion; it has to do with you speak a slightly
different language than me, or you look just a little bit different. In Northern Ireland
it was religious. In other places, it just has to do with trying to gain power, or a
majority group trying to impose its will on a minority group. So there are all kinds of
reasons for violence. But one of the phenomena that we are now seeing
is a very specific promotion of violent extremism that oftentimes is twisting and distorting
and, I think, ultimately, defying the edicts of one of the world’s greatest religions
— Islam. And it’s being exported and turbocharged through social media, and groups like al-Shabaab
and ISIL and Boko Haram. And the question is, how do we fight back against those ideologies
in a way that allows us still to be true to the values of peace and tolerance and due
process and rule of law. So the United States is obviously committed
to this fight against terrorism. And we are working with countries and partnering with
countries all around the world to go after whether it’s al Qaeda, Boko Haram. But what
we’ve also said is in order to defeat these extremist ideologies, it can’t just be military,
police and security. It has to be reaching into communities that feel marginalized and
making sure that they feel that they’re heard; making sure that the young people in
those communities have opportunity. And that’s why it’s so important to partner
with civil society organizations in countries throughout Africa and around the world who
can reach young people before ISIL reaches them, before al Shabaab reaches them, and
inoculate them from the notion that somehow the solution to their alienation or the source
of future opportunity for them is to go kill people. And that’s why, when I was in Kenya, for
example, and I did a town hall meeting there, I emphasized what I had said to President
Kenyata — be a partner with the civil society groups. (Applause.) Because too often, there’s
a tendency —
because what the extremist groups want to do is they want to divide. That’s what terrorism
is all about. The notion is that you scare societies, further polarizes them. The government
reacts by further discriminating against a particular group. That group then feels it
has no political outlet peacefully to deal with their grievances. And that then — that
suppression can oftentimes accelerate even more extremism. And that’s why reaching out to civil society
groups, clergy, and listening and asking, okay, what is it that we need to do in order
to make sure that young people feel that they can succeed? What is it that we need to do
to make sure that they feel that they’re fully a part of this country and are full
citizens, and have full rights? How do we do that? Bringing them into plan and design
messages and campaigns that embrace the diversity of these countries — those are the things
that are so important to do. We still have to gain intelligence and engage
in effective military and police campaigns to eradicate those who are so brainwashed
that all you can do is incapacitate them. But the question is constantly, how do we
make sure that the recruitment of young people into these terrorist organizations, how do
we cut off that flow? And that requires more than just military efforts. (Applause.) All right. This young lady right here. Yes,
right here in the green and red. Yes, you. No, no, no right here. Go ahead. No, no, no,
right here in front. Yes, you. Yes, go ahead. Q Thank you, Mr. President. I’m from Kenya.
And I’m speaking on behalf of my brothers and sisters with albinism from Africa. As
you may know, Mr. President, persons with albinism in Africa are being killed and their
body parts harvested for ritual purposes. My request to you is to raise this issue with
the heads of states from African countries to bring these atrocities to an end, for the
benefit of for us in this room, and our brothers and sisters back in Africa. Thank you. (Applause.) THE PRESIDENT: Okay, good. Thank you. Well,
can I just say the notion that any African would discriminate against somebody because
of the color of their skin, after what black people around the world have gone through,
is crazy. (Applause.) It is infuriating
and I have no patience for it. When I was in Africa, I said there are important
traditions and folkways that need to be respected — that’s part of who each culture is, each
country is. But there’s also just foolish traditions — (applause) — and old ways of
doing business that are based in ignorance. And they need to stop. And the idea that a
society would visit violence on people because of pigmentation, that’s not a tradition that
is worth preserving. That’s tomfoolery. That’s craziness. It’s cruel. The same is true with practices like genital
mutilation. That just has to stop. (Applause.) You don’t do violence to young girls just
because your great-grandfather or — because there’s no reason for it other than to suppress
woman. That’s the rationale. That’s what it’s based on. Bride abduction — bad tradition.
End it. Beating women — not a good tradition. (Applause.) I don’t care that that used to
be how things were done. Societies evolve based on new understandings
and new science and new appreciation of who we are. And so we can preserve great traditions
— music, food, dance, language, art — but if there’s a tradition anywhere in Africa,
or here in the United States, or anywhere in the world that involves treating people
differently because you’re scared of them, or because you’re ignorant about them, or
because you want to feel superior to them, it’s a bad tradition. And you have to challenge
it. And you can’t accept excuses for it. Grace was up here — you heard the power of
Grace’s talking. Now, traditionally, people with disabilities are treated differently
because people are ignorant. And when — here in the United States, we passed the Americans
Against With Disabilities Act. And that opened up more opportunities, and suddenly there
are ramps so people can access it, and there are computers and new technologies so that
people who maybe couldn’t communicate before can communicate. And it turns out there’s
all this talent and brilliance, and people can do these things. Well, then people’s
attitudes have to change, and the societies have to change. And that’s why young people
are so important in changing attitudes. The same, by the way, is true for sexual orientation.
(Applause.) I spoke about this in Africa, and everybody is like, oh, oh, we don’t
want to hear that. (Laughter.) But the truth of the matter is, is that if you’re treating
people differently just because of who they love and who they are, then there’s a connection
between that mindset and the mindset that led to racism, and the mindset that leads
to ethnic conflict. (Applause.) It means that you’re not able to see somebody else as
a human being. And so you can’t, on the one hand, complain
when somebody else does that to you, and then you’re doing it to somebody else. You can’t
do it. There’s got to be some consistency to how you think about these issues. And that’s
going to be up to young people — because old people get stuck in their ways. (Laughter.)
They do. They do. And that’s true here in the United States. The truth of the matter is, is that when I
started running for President, everybody said a black guy names Barack Obama, he’s not
going to win the presidency of the United States. (Laughter.) But what I was banking
on was the fact that with all the problems that still exist in the United States around
racial attitudes, et cetera, things have changed, and young people and new generations had suddenly
understood that, in Dr. King’s words, you have to be judged not by the color of your
skin, but by the contents of your character. And that doesn’t mean that everything suddenly
is perfect. It just means that, young people, you can lead the way and set a good example.
But it requires some courage, because the old thinking, people will push back at you.
And if you don’t have the convictions and the courage to be able to stand up for what
you think is right, then cruelty will perpetuate itself. with is that notion of you are strong by taking
care of the people who are vulnerable, by looking after the minority, looking after
the disabled, looking after the vulnerable. You’re not strong by putting people down;
you’re strong by lifting them up. (Applause.) That’s the measure of a leader. All right, how much time do we got? I’ve
only got time for one more question. Now, first of all, the women — you’ve to put
your hands down because I just asked a woman. (Laughter.) So it’s got to be a guy. And
I promised I’d ask a guy in a suit. (Laughter.) I’m just going to ask this guy right here.
(Applause.) Look at him, he’s all buttoning up. He looks very sharp. AUDIENCE MEMBER: That’s my boy! (Laughter.) Q Thank you, Mr. President. I’m from Nigeria.
Thank you. I want to say we appreciate all the great work that the United States is doing
with Nigeria and many other African countries, especially as it concerns infrastructure development
policies and all of those. But I’m of the opinion that if we do not make investment
in education more than any other sector of the economy, then we are not building a sustainable
partnership. (Applause.) And I’m saying that with respect to the fact that we are
all of the intellectual dream that Africa is experiencing. Due to the fact the grass
seemed green on this side and then the United States attracts so many intellectuals, we
should have stayed to development and grown these programs. For example, recently, when you were in Kenya,
you launched a project around power and energy. I’m of the opinion that if that program
is going to be successful and sustainable, then all of those programs should include
the partnership of universities. (Applause.) Because through that, we can build the capacity
of universities, and then those countries can go around in other African countries replicating
that. So in that case, we can control the dream that is moving from Africa to the West,
or to any other part of the country. (Applause.) So I want to ask, what is the United States
doing to control this intellectual dream to the Western world? And what are you doing
to increase, more than others, the investment in education so that our partnership and development
can be truly sustainable? Thank you. (Applause.) THE PRESIDENT: Okay, good. That was good.
That was an excellent question. It is an excellent question, but I’m going to reverse the question
a little bit. The question is not what is the United States doing to reverse the brain
drain. The question is, what are your countries doing to reverse the brain drain? (Applause.) Now, many of you have friends who study overseas,
they study in the West, and then they decide to stay instead of going back home. Now, the
United States, we are partnering with every country here. I guarantee you there are programs
to invest in education in your country. There are programs to work with the universities
in your countries. I think you make an excellent point that on big projects like Power Africa,
we should make sure that there is a capacity-building component. And in fact, one of the things
that’s been done with our development assistance that we’re providing is to emphasize capacity-building. So, for example, our Feed the Future program,
the goal is not to just keep on sending food forever. The goal is teaching farmers to double
or triple or quadruple their yields, which then gives them more income, which then allows
them to buy maybe a tractor or to start a cooperative food-processing plant, that then
accesses the market and the money gets reinvested, and now you’re building jobs and commerce
inside the country as opposed to just being an aid recipient. So I’m all about capacity-building. But ultimately, why is it that you have so
many talented, well-educated young Africans leaving instead of staying? Why is it that
you have so many talented, well-educated people from the Middle East or parts of Asia, or
Latin America who would rather live here than there? The issue is not just that we’re a wealthier
country. I think it’s fair to say — and you know better than I do — but part of it
has to do with a young person’s assessment of can I succeed in applying my talents if,
for example, the economy is still built on corruption so that I have to pay a bribe or
be well-connected in order to start my business. (Applause.) Or are there still ethnic rivalries
in the country, which means that if I’m from the wrong tribe, I’m less likely to
advance. Or is there still so much sexism in the country that if I’m a woman, then
I’m expected just to be at home and be quiet, when I’m a trained doctor. Or is there a
lack of rule of law or basic human rights and freedoms that make me feel as if I am
restricted in what I can do. I make this point to say that some of the
brain drain is economic. But some of it has to do with people’s assessments of if I
stay in my country, am I going to have the ability to succeed? And that’s why, when
I talk to leaders in Africa, or anywhere around the world, I say, look, if you put together
the basics of rule of law and due process and democracy, and you’re able to keep peace
so that there’s not conflict and constant danger, and the government is not corrupt,
then even a poor country, you’re going to attract a lot of people who are going to want
to live there because they’ll feel like they’re part of building something and are
contributing something. Because the one thing I’ve discovered is — right
now, I live in a big house but it’s a lease, you know, I have to give it up in 18 months.
(Laughter.) A big house is nice for the first month — it’s like, well, this is a really
big house. (Laughter.) Then, after about two months you realize, I can’t live in all these
rooms. (Laughter.) My life is not appreciably better once I’ve got the basics. And I think
a lot of young Africans would be much more interested in staying even if they don’t have
as big of a house, or the shopping malls aren’t as big, or — if they felt as if the basics
are taken care of, I can keep my family safe, I can practice my profession, I’m not going
to be discriminated against — (applause) — the government is well-meaning and well-intentioned
and is not corrupt, and public investments are being made, then people I think would
have a sense of meaning in their lives. That doesn’t mean that there aren’t going
to be some people who would still rather live in London or New York because they think they
can make more money. But I think that, as much as anything we do, is going to reverse
the brain drain. And that’s why what you do is going to be so important, because if you
set a good example of going back home and rebuilding your country, and if you, as young
leaders, are creating an environment in which young people can succeed and you’re setting
a new set of expectations about how exciting it is to be part of something new — that
can help turn the tide. So, good luck. (Applause.) Thank you, everybody. (Applause.)

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