– [Joshua] Hi, guys. It is my distinct
pleasure to announce our next speakers and introduce them to you although I don’t
really think I need to introduce them really because everybody knows them
already, but I will read their amazing bios because they are amazing people.
So Karen Myers and Tzviya Siegman are the next presenters today. At the W3C,
Karen Myers serves as business development leader for the Americas and
Australia regions. In this role, she engages in a variety of new business
outreach and member engagement activities to support multiple verticals and
industries participating in W3C, including Publishing. In 2012,
together with Ivan Herman, W3C technical lead for publishing,
Karen helped organise a series of W3C Workshops in the U.S., Europe,
and Asia to explore the opportunity to work for new standards in the
publishing industry at W3C. By 2013, the first W3C Publishing Interest
Group was formed. Since then, she has been an advocate for the
publishing community at W3C, managing the communications for the W3C’s
combination with IDPF in February 2017 as well as the launch of the new
Publishing Business Group and the Publishing Working Group.
Before working at W3C, Karen worked for Leo Burnett Technology
Group as Vice President of Strategic Planning in Boston, Massachusetts and
in Frankfurt, Germany. She enjoys spending as much time as possible in
her cottage in Canada. Tzviya Siegman is Wiley’s Information
Standards Lead. Tzviya wrote and maintained Wiley’s e-book specifications
and stylesheets and serves as Wiley’s liaison to industry standards groups.
As you all know, she is extremely active in that regard. She currently works in
Wiley’s Platform Architecture Group, joining her interests in content,
standards, accessibility, and linked data. Tzviya also co-chairs the W3C Publishing
Working Group, helping to make the web and publishing better friends.
Please welcome Tzviya and Karen. ♪ [music] ♪ – [Karen] Good morning. Bonjour.
And for our Algonquin First Nation peoples, Kwe Kwe.
Thank you so much for having us, and my colleague, Tzviya Siegman,
this morning. Say hi. – [Tzviya] Hello. – Oh, good. Mic check. It works.
We’re just delighted to be here. We are going to give you a
short talk about…not a short talk, a talk about going down memory lane as
well as looking at all of the standards that’s going on at W3C.
Some will be a little bit technical, others topics not quite
as technical. Oh, good it is. First, we’d like to give a shout-out to
the 19th century author, Charles Dickens, an inspiration for the themeGreat
Expectations, a book that actually was serialised in the 19th century and
it inspired…I love the book and I love Dickens, but it also inspired us to
strive high for great expectations for the work that we’re doing at W3C.
And our first step into the publishing industry actually began at the
Tools of Change conference in 2013 in New York where our CEO, Jeff Jaffe,
was a keynote and talking about this concept of bringing more expertise
from publishing into the web. And so that was the title of his talk.
And when he learned that Dickens had published the book serially, he said, “Oh,
well, he was a 19th century blogger. And so we’re going to go through
a few timeline things pretty quickly. So as Josh mentioned, in 2013,
we actually began a series of workshops and the Publishing Interest Group was
formed. That’s where I first met Tzviya. We met in New York and many people in
this audience as well, and that was our first…we had about a hundred people who
came from the different publishing sectors to tell us what’s wrong with the web for
publishers. It was a great learning experience and it was just five years ago.
Then we moved to Japan where we learned about all of the challenges that vertical
text had and other languages. That was hosted in Tokyo. And then we learned about
some of the workflow and CSS and other needs for publishers on the web.
So that was all very educational. And then in 2014, we began to collaborate
with the International Digital Publishing Forum, and a first draft for
requirements of Latin text layout and pagination was developed by this
interest group which, by the way, Tzviya was also co-chairing at that time.
So the collaboration with IDPF included presentations at various conferences.
You may recognise some of these folks here. And then we published the CSS
first public working draft in 2015 and also documents for the open web platform
was a white paper that was presented, I believe, that was at Books and Browsers
in San Francisco. So then in 2016, we continued the collaboration with IDPF,
and our founder and director, Tim Berners-Lee presented a keynote
painting a vision for a combined, emerged vision with IDPF and W3C,
and what else the open web platform could be doing for publishers.
And we announced our intent to explore combining those two organisations in May
of 2016. And that was the press release for that. And last year,
as Josh also mentioned in the introduction,
we actually officially combined in February of last year and started
the roadmap for publishing at W3C, and that was the announcement.
So now as W3C, our mission is to lead the web to its full potential.
Very broad mission but it’s open for so many opportunities and just quickly how
we’re organised. We actually, at W3C, are combined organisations
with four different universities, and it doesn’t actually exist as a legal
entity. It’s a joint venture agreement with these different universities.
And we have about 70 full-time staff around the world and they are
the staff contacts that facilitate, but the work itself is done by the
members, by the volunteers at W3C. So just a couple of words about the
strategic roadmap. So the combination of adding EPUB and HTML5 was the compelling
reason to bring us together so that future versions of EPUB would continue to
be based on W3C web technologies. And we’re continuing, as Rachel said,
to develop EPUB 3.1 at W3C in the community group
which is free, and that’s great. So no problem with that at all.
We do have the longer-term vision which Tzviya is going to tell you about
in a few minutes about creating this online-offline packaged format for the
web, and to advance the open web platform is the third part of our talk today,
about different standards that are relevant for publishers. So we’ll go
through some of those later today too. So the convergence vision that
web publications possibly packaged for offline use, share a unified technical
architecture and rely on the latest standards of the open web platform.
And essentially, we want to make sure that any publication is a first-class citizen
on the web. So how have we organised ourselves at W3C for this new publishing
activity? I believe Liisa mentioned that she is co-chair of the business group,
and that is sort of this overarching steering committee and the business
group is also a very lightweight way to participate in W3C and that provides
the various strategic direction for the working group and the EPUB community
group. Then we also have the working group which is where the standards are
developed. So only W3C working groups do standards. Other groups look at use
cases and requirements and notes and things. We also, of course,
are doing a lot of community building and outreach. We had our first publishing
summit in November last year and we have an EPUB…not an EPUB, Digital Publishing
Summit Europe coming up in May in Berlin. So now, I’d like for Tzviya
to take you through some of the activities in greater depth about what’s going on
in these various groups for publishing. – Thank you. Okay. So I’m going to talk
a little bit about what the difference between each of these groups is,
how you can get involved, how you can get involved, and how you can
get involved. There are going to be a lot of links in these slides. Karen and I
will share with you at the end of the presentation how you can download
this presentation so that you can access all of these links so that you can get
involved. So this is like the 17th time you’ve heard about the Publishing Business
Group today. This is a link to the homepage. The Publishing Business
Group is chaired by Liisa you met earlier today and yesterday, Luc Audrain
from Hachette Europe, and Rick Johnson of VitalSource,
three phenomenal people who are so much fun to work with. We meet bi-weekly on
Tuesdays at lunchtime on the East Coast. If you’re in California,
it’s a breakfast meeting. If you’re in Europe, it’s dinner.
If you’re in Asia, it’s past your bedtime but a lot of people from Asia join anyway.
I mean, if you’re in Australia, you’re kind of out of luck, but we try.
But actually, we are starting to have meetings, I think,
once a month at, I think, it’s 7 p.m. Eastern so that we can accommodate
people all around the world. So what is it that we do in this meeting?
We try to plan events around the world which is great. We’re working on a roadmap
for what it is that the publishing activity that the W3C is planning.
We have a roadmap group which had two meetings and then we declared ourselves
done which is the best way a taskforce would work. The best thing a taskforce can
do is close because that means you actually finished your tasks. In parallel,
we’re working on some event planning as Karen mentioned, and there is a
participation fee for participating and Karen will be able to provide you with the
details of that because I can’t keep track anymore. So there are a lot of
taskforces. We have accessibility in every one of these groups. EPUB roadmap,
as I mentioned. So we know that the community groups are responsible for EPUB
maintenance but what exactly that means is determined by the business group.
EPUBCheck fundraising. I have a whole slide devoted to this.
I’ll come back to it in a minute. Best practices. That’s Rachel’s world.
She spoke a little bit about that. If you want to contribute to EPUB
best practices, just talk to Rachel. She’ll tell you what to do.
We talk about internal coordination, how we coordinate with other W3C working
groups. Karen and I are going to talk a little bit about some of the W3C working
groups that might interest this group. There are how many working
groups in the W3C now? – Over 50. – Over 50. That seems overwhelming.
We can tell you which ones might interest you and then you might have a side
interest in real-time communication and you can just hop into that group if you’re
really interested and you’re a W3C member. There’s also external coordination.
There are so many organisations around the world that focus on publishing:
BookNet Canada, BISG, LIA. How do we coordinate everything and how do
we make sure that everybody knows what it is that we’re working on and
starts to adopt the standards? So we have a committee working on that,
and then ISO standardisation which is my personal favourite. It’s not actually
something that I like to get involved in, but it’s really important because ISO
standardisation is what makes this a truly international standard.
Not all organisations, governments, recognise W3C standards.
So it’s very important that we get EPUB to ISO standardisation level and if
you really are a glutton for punishment and like to work on the nitty-gritty
details of how to make something as standard as possible,
get involved in ISO standardisation. I promise you it will be rewarding.
EpubCheck. Who uses EpubCheck? Who relies on EpubCheck?
Who thinks EpubCheck is the most important tool that we have in this toolchain?
Who has contributed to EpubCheck? Okay, four people in this room.
Who thinks that if we don’t continue to develop EpubCheck,
your toolchain will collapse? Who’s going to contribute funding to
EpubCheck? Okay, here’s the problem. There are, right now, two developers
working on EpubCheck, both of whom have full-time jobs, full-time families,
and they are volunteers. We have been relying on
volunteers to develop EpubCheck since EpubCheck was developed.
The volunteers have been called away to their full-time jobs.
EpubCheck has had a little bit of development here and there for the past
two years. We developed a taskforce to work on developing, maintaining,
and overhauling EpubCheck so that it would be easier to contribute to EpubCheck,
and we came to the conclusion that it needs a true full-time developer to do
about a year’s worth of work to get it into shape. If we are going to have
EpubCheck to support EPUB 3.2, and we can talk about what EPUB 3.2 means
in a minute, then we need a serious fundraising campaign. If you,
your company, your Kickstarter campaign, your cat wants to contribute to EpubCheck,
please contact Bill McCoy at the email address here, or you can contact me or
Karen and we’ll put you in touch with the right people. We will not have EpubCheck
if we do not have this funding. I’ll move on. The EPUB 3 community group
chaired by the wonderful Dave and Rachel. What do we do in the community group?
First of all, it’s free to join. Yay, sign up right now. Just Google
EPUB 3 community group W3C if you missed that URL.
EPUB 3.2 spec work is done in this group. Why are we doing EPUB 3.2?
For a number of reasons, some of which are ISO standardisation.
Basically, 3.1 wasn’t getting adopted, 3.2 rolls back some of the stuff we
thought that we could do in 3.1, and 3.2 should be easier to adopt.
Dave is the primary person working on 3.2, talk to him. Rachel’s working on best
practices which will tell all of you how to do 3.2 in the real world.
A lot of the work is done in GitHub. If GitHub scares you, Benjamin will
give you a session on how to use GitHub. There are phone calls as needed.
Dave doesn’t really like talking on the phone, so he tries to do
everything online. It’s free, everyone can participate. What’s the story with
EPUB 3 today? We heard a lot of scary statistics yesterday. Like only 30%
of the books that Kobo gets are in EPUB 3. The story in education is
very different. Of the 100 most used titles that VitalSource got last year,
77% were EPUB 3. That’s a less scary statistic. So the numbers are all
over the place. In Japan, in Korea, 100% of the titles are EPUB 3 because they
never used EPUB 2. So the numbers are different all over the world.
Whatever it is, we have to bring EPUB 3 up certainly in trade. I’ll let Dave
take a picture, then I’ll move on. The Publishing Working Group,
this is what I live and breathe every day of my life. I co-chair it
with Garth Conboy of Google, one of the original inventors
of EPUB. What is it that we do? We make the combination of traditional
publishing and the web complete in terms of accessibility, usability, portability,
distribution, archive or offline, and reliable cross-referencing.
We talk every week and a lot of times between those phone calls,
there’s a lot of work done on GitHub. We have a face-to-face meeting
in this lovely city in two months, and my son will be there.
And you do need to be a member to participate. So we take publications
with all their traditions of the thousands of years of publishing and we want them to
become first-class citizens of the web. So what is a publication?
It can be many resources. We all know what is involved in publishing
in this room: text, videos, research data, all of that stuff, we’re very big on
saying not just books in our Publishing Working Group. I work a lot on scholarly
publishing. There are people who are involved with…we just got new members from
NASA. I love to see what they publish. That’ll be lots of fun.
So we’re talking about publishing the single work as an abstract unit with an
address, meaning something like a URL, a single…and making sure that the
integrity is maintained as a single unit. So the way that EPUB is a single unit
even though there are lots of things in that unit, we want this to be able to
exist on the web. And the publication, as I said before, it could mean
anything: trade books, textbooks, scholarly articles, magazines,
legal publications, and some people like to point out even that letter that
your church secretary publishes. The Jews like to talk about the church
secretary. So what are the requirements? It needs to be addressable.
We need to be able to point to it. So one of the things that EPUB has perhaps
lacked over the years is that it doesn’t exist on the web. I cannot point to that
EPUB unless I do something specific with…once I post it on a website
and it’s still not on the website. So it doesn’t live on the web,
it’s just in a box outside of the web. We talk about EPUB as a website in a box.
I need to be able to point to that, and ideally point to things inside the
EPUB with a URL as well. What are the components of this
publication? What sequence do they live in? What’s the default reading order
or a non-default reading order? We could choose our own adventure perhaps.
How do I describe the parts of the publication? How do I personalise
it? We’ve come to expect that I can adjust the font size, adjust the background
colour, maybe even change the font in a publication. How do I annotate it,
highlight it? How do I put notes in it? And how do I take it offline which is the
thing that we expect from EPUB? It lives offline, but how do I take
something that lives on the web offline? So now in 2018, what is it that we’ve
accomplished now that we’ve been working on this for over a year? In the W3C,
the first stage of publishing is called first public working draft which is
exactly what it sounds like. You put out your preliminary version of a
specification for the world to see. Here are the ideas we have,
give us feedback. So we put out three of those in January.
That’s actually a lot of work, three documents in one month.
It took us like a year, but that’s great. So take a look at these documents,
give us your feedback. I think we’re on revisions of these
documents already, but they’re still considered first public working drafts.
And I wrote up a technical summary and I plan to write up an updated technical
summary in the next…probably in late April after my vacation, and I do regular status
updates on this wiki. So take a look. And let me go through what is new about
these documents. So the treatment of the publication as a whole,
that’s what I keep talking about. Right now, there’s nothing preventing you
from putting a book on the web as these are three chapters and each chapter has
its own HTML document, but what ties them together. So we need something that
tells the browsers to treat these things as one whole publication,
and we are calling these affordances, thanks to Benjamin. How do we make
the web do what we want it to do? What is different from the way the web
works today? So here’s the example we always like to do because it’s
easy to wrap your mind around. I want to search all of these files in the
publication as a whole document, not as three separate documents.
And again, I want to be able to take it offline, and importantly,
I want to be able to address this. I want to be able to point to it.
This is particularly important to scholarly publishing because I need to
be able to cite it. People’s jobs live and die by citations. And then we want to
go to packaged web publications. It’s exactly the same thing as web
publications, but there’s a container around it. We haven’t figured out what
the package and format is going to be, but we’re considering relying on a work in
progress as the combined effort of the W3C and the IETF, the internet standards
organisation which is called web packaging although that name is also up in the
air because it sounds too much like something else. And at this point,
the package and format is it’s just the gravy, but at some point,
is going to become more important. It’s all a work in progress.
So again, if you’re interested, anybody can join the email list.
You don’t have to be a member. Just follow that link to join the
email list. If you’re interested in participating, you do need to be a W3C
member. You can be a TPI member or a transitional member.
So if you were a member of the IDPF, you can join as well.
We do have some taskforces. We have the Accessibility Taskforce
led by Avneesh Singh from DAISY, the Affordances Taskforce led by
Mateus Teixeira whose name I’m sure I’m butchering, and Jasmin Mulliken,
the Manifest Taskforce led by Benjamin and Roman, and we’re working on
all of these details out now. And I’ll pass this back to Karen. – Since we have some extra time,
I think we’ll pause here for a moment because that was a lot of information.
And so maybe pause for some questions at this time about the actual publishing
work itself, the community group, the business group, and the details of the
working group that Tzviya just outlined. – [Female 1] So I asked this question
yesterday and I’m going to ask it again, the one concern that I have and the one
interest that I have in EPUB is that if we remember the web in the sort of philosophy
of Tim Berners-Lee is for everyone, and EPUB should be for everyone.
And right now, everybody who’s in the conversation
are publishers or affiliated with publishing houses.
And I wrote a whole thesis about this because what I’m really concerned about
is the fact that this is a non-transparent accessibly…it has non-transparent
accessibility. So you need to be in the system to create and access.
So I want to see…I mean, I’m trying to see whether or not we can
have a conversation about people who want to produce publications but are not within
the publishing house infrastructure, in other words, self-publishing. – So it’s up to people who are in that
community to join us. As Dave… – But we have to be members. – No, the community group’s
open to anyone. – Yeah, and I’m a member of the
community group, but I just… – Are you on the GitHub or have you
started watching GitHub because that’s where all the work actually happens? – Well, I’m trying to, but it’s…I mean,
the conversation is really difficult to understand. So at some level,
I can do some of it but I can’t do all of it. And I’m only one person and I know
that there is…it’s sort of six of one, half a dozen of the other. If the only
people who are in the room who are talking about this format are all
coming from the same place, then the conversation is not,
“This is for everyone. This is a conversation.” – It’s not just publishers talking.
We do have reading system developers. We have university presses.
We have large publishers, trade publishers, scholarly publishers.
We should talk afterwards about how it may be easier to get involved.
We do have other slides about how to get involved, but I can’t be the person
to tell you how to manage your time. – I think that’s great feedback because
if there are different levels of participation, education,
we have groups at W3C, for example, Education and Outreach for Accessibility
and that’s what they do, is help people understand how to use the
W3C standards. And perhaps, there’s a need that you’ve just identified
that we should take a look at, which is how to do more…
– There’s a hashtag, if you’re interested, there’s a hashtag
called #weneeddiversebooks. And it is essentially a movement and
it’s coming out of libraries in the U.S. to try and encourage people to produce
their own books because they’re coming out of communities and
cultures and sort of systems where the publishing world
isn’t really reflecting their stories. – No, that’s great feedback.
Why don’t we speak offline? I think that’s great. Love to maybe
even have a little box at lunch if that’s a topic of interest for people. – So if there are no other questions,
I think some of our other slides do address this concern. – Okay, I guess we’ll move on to the next
section which is looking at how we are advancing the web for everyone,
we hope, in many different areas. And we’ve chosen five to highlight this
morning. The first is user experience, including all kinds of things
we’ll talk about in a minute. Accessibility, security and privacy,
data and annotations, and the immersive web. – Light topics. – Yes, light topics before the break.
So I know that there was a CSS workshop. I know there’ll be more conversations
about CSS yet today. So we just wanted to highlight this
briefly, but the CSS group, thanks to many people who are
contributing, is much more aware of the needs of publishers.
Everything from drop caps, footnotes, pagination, etc., which you’ll hear about.
There are many, many new CSS modules, so please take a look at the CSS pages on
the W3C site. And another area that the W3C has been working on is web fonts.
And just a couple weeks ago, we published a new recommendation on
web fonts and it’s 2.0. They call it WOFF, kind of sounds like wharf but it’s WOFF,
and what’s exciting about it is they’re very compressed formats and they are a
means…you can use CSS app font face rules. And it significantly improves the
compression efficiency particularly on mobile. So that’s why this is a real
advancement. So if you are looking to use new fonts, check out WOFF as a
mobile-friendly and compressed format. It’s also been tested and it’s being
supported in most of the major browsers. So we’re pretty excited about this new
technology, and if anyone wants more in-depth details, see me afterwards and
I can connect you with some of those technical experts. It’s co-chaired or
chaired by Vlad Levantovsky from Monotype and Chris Lilley
is our staff contact there. User experience, another area. Well, we call it i18n because
that’s the number of letters in internationalisation, but this is a
marvelous area that W3C does to really make the web accessible
for everyone in every language. And the whole goal is that we do
a horizontal review of all W3C specifications to make sure that there
are not internationalisation challenges with those specifications.
We have a pretty large group, but they’re definitely looking for more
people. And if you have expertise in different languages, we very
much welcome. And in particular, we’re looking right now at Arabic
languages. There are some gaps there. We have what we’re calling a heat map
or this language matrix. If you click on that link,
it’s this huge graph with all these different cubes that show you what are the
current state of different languages. We also need more First Nation experts.
And so if there are people in this room or if you know people who would like to be
seeing the web being friendlier to the numerous First Nation families of
languages: Inuit, Algonquin, etc., please let me know and I’d love to connect
you with our internationalisation folks. And, of course, text layout.
They also look at how it’s rendering and making sure the line breaking and they
also worked very closely with the Japanese page layout. I’ve learned so much
about right-to-left languages. I didn’t even know that Mongolian,
you read this way like up and down, vertically.
So it’s really a very fascinating area. So for those of you who are looking to
publish internationally and make sure that what you’re doing is effective,
take a look at Internationalisation. And if you have the skill sets,
they would welcome you with open arms, I assure you. So back to
Tzviya on accessibility. – Hello. So another area of
horizontal review is accessibility. Horizontal review means that every W3C
spec gets reviewed by a team of experts in that area, and you can’t pass on to the
next phase. It’s like you have to unlock that level of achievement to move on to
the final phase. If you’re a gamer, you understand. I am not a gamer,
but I talk to Benjamin. So you have to pass accessibility
achievement in order to move on to the final phase. So let’s talk
about how accessibility affects you. If you’ve been here for more than
a few minutes, you already know that accessibility is crucial to your EPUBs.
If you’re not worrying about it, you should be. So the W3C defines
accessibility for the web. Legislation in many countries actually
points to the W3C specification such as WCAG. This is where the action is,
and let’s point out that WCAG 2.1 was just published. It’s the first update
to WCAG in about 10 years, huge accomplishment. Changes to
the specs often means changes to your workflows. And how do you find out
about changes? So there’s a link here to the WAI IG email list,
that’s the Web Accessibility Initiative Interest Group email list.
You don’t really need to remember what that all stands for.
If you go to that link, you can sign up to follow that email list.
What’s so magical about this email list, it’s where you can get updates about…news
updates like when a spec is changing, but you can also ask questions there
and you’ll get answers. You can say, “When is it appropriate to put
ARIA-label on whatever element?” And the people who answer your questions
are the people who actually wrote ARIA or the people who are developing JAWS.
It’s pretty magical. When you sign up, you’ll see that there are some guidelines
for the kinds of questions that are appropriate to ask, and one of the
guidelines is read the archives first so that they don’t get the same question
17 times in a week, but it’s a really awesome resource. And that, of course,
is free because it’s an email list. And let’s also keep in mind that WCAG
applies to EPUB just as much as it does to the web. So let’s talk about
what other standards exists. WAI creates specifications, guidelines,
and best practices. I think we’ve all heard a lot about ARIA and WCAG,
and again, WCAG 2.1 addresses web content for things like semantics for anybody with
a disability, not just with a disability, it’s really about usability.
So low vision, cognitive, mobile accessibility,
all sorts of abilities and disabilities that makes it better for all of us.
DPUB-ARIA, I happen to be involved in writing that, but it was co-authored
by the Publishing Working Group. Actually, it was then the Digital
Publishing Interest Group and an ARIA taskforce. If you want to get
involved in writing the 1.1 of that, I’m the person to talk to,
but there are so many more accessibility specifications out there.
There are the accessibility API mappings which is what actually tells assistive
technology how to read ARIA. There are the user agent accessibility
guidelines, and the…oh, I never remember what this stands for.
ATAG is something else. Somebody help me out. – Authoring Guidelines. – Thank you. Authoring Tool
Accessibility Guidelines, that’s it. But there are a lot of documents out
there, but did you even know that there are Authoring Tool Accessibility
Guidelines? If you’re responsible for writing an authoring tool,
it needs to be accessible as well. Of course, it does, but there are
guidelines for how to make that accessible. But again,
how can you get involved? So many people are daunted by this.
There’s the WAI IG email list. Another phenomenal resource is
what Karen started to mention before, is the WAI Education and Outreach
website. There is so much information on there. It can be a little bit
overwhelming. Where do you even get started? The first place to go is this
website. Click on the links there, go there. The first thing you’ll see is
Getting Started. Go to the Getting Started page. The first thing you’ll see
is, how do people with accessibility use the web? The business case for
accessibility, and a number of links like that. Go in there, get your toes wet,
see what happens, you’ll learn a lot. And then, of course,
I will say join a group. The best way to keep track of evolving
standards is to help write them. This is the way that I advocate all the
time. We’re running out of time. – It’s all good. So another area that’s
also what we call the horizontal review of W3C specifications is security and
privacy. We have a number of security work going on: web app security,
web encryption. So if you’re really concerned about security,
happy to talk more about that afterwards. And very excited that just this week,
the Web Authentication Working Group published its first…or actually has moved
to candidate recommendation which is one step away from becoming a final standard
or recommendation. And the web authentication API enables a public…you
to point to a public key access to create better authorisation for the user.
So think about, for example either biometric and/or YubiKey with the
password in the browser. So it’s a multi-factor authentication,
so it will be much more secure. So we’re very excited about this work as
well. Privacy also, we have a group that looks at any aspects of privacy across
the work that we’re doing at W3C, and we’re also looking at identity
which is the verifiable claims work. – So I’m loosely involved with verifiable
claims and I’m just going to go over it very quickly, and how it is that it
could affect publishing. The idea behind verifiable claims is that
we share a lot of information online, and so much of what we share is not
secure. The thought process behind the verifiable claims data model and the
decentralised identifiers group that they’re working with is that I share one
piece of information such as my driver’s licence has the information that I am
capable of operating a motor vehicle. And I can share just that bit of
information, and there is some encryption behind it and therefore,
it is secure for me to share it. The verifiable claims data model provides
a way to express the credential on the web in a cryptographically secure and private
way, and it’s automatically verifiable. I’m not going to go into more details
than that now. If you are interested, you can talk to me later.
Here’s a little diagram explaining how that works. Basically,
there’s somebody who…the holder or the subject of that claim can store, retrieve,
and move the claim, and then pass it along to other parties.
But how is this relevant to publishing? We do a lot of things in the publishing
world that require information such as this. I have a learning management
system. I offer test-taking services. I sell books. I authorise a library to…or
I’m a library that authorises users to borrow my books. How do I get any of
that information and how is it secure? So I’ve put some of the use cases up here
that are relevant and some of these are already in the verifiable claims use cases
document and some of them will be in there soon, but the first example,
a learning management system user needs to identify herself for an exam.
She’s required to provide her credentials to prove her identity before the test,
then to allow the system to issue a verifiable claim regarding the results of
her test. So a student needs to get the results of her test. How does she
prove that she is actually the test taker? So these are just some examples
of how verifiable claims could be used. Again, it’s a little bit more complicated
than what I’m getting into now, and I’m happy to talk to you
about it later, but it’s an area that publishers might want to explore because
we deal with users’ identities and retail all the time. – So another area is data, and we heard
a little bit about that this morning. There are a number of activities in around
data at W3C. We’re not going to highlight all of these here today,
but we did want to talk a little bit about the annotations work because
that is very relevant for publishers. And the web annotation,
this is an example from Hypothesis which has built their system on top of the web
annotation specification that was just developed last year.
And I had a demonstration a couple weeks ago. It’s really amazing how you can
search the different annotations and create annotation groups,
and it’s really very impressive. And so we think that a lot more
publishers will be wanting to use it, but also in the classrooms,
in school settings, there are many different applications for annotations
and beyond publishing, per se, academic community as well as government,
all different kinds of uses for web annotations. So basically,
you can annotate anything on the web and it’s searchable. And so we’re really
looking forward to seeing more annotations work. It is growing.
As you can see, just in a very short time, this is data from Hypothesis and their
platform, how quickly in just a couple of years it’s taking off.
So that might be something interesting for you to check out.
Another area is permissions, obligations, and expressions which we nicknamed POE.
Shout-out to the author there, but not exactly. It actually was based on
ODRL, and ODRL came to W3C through a free community group, and they worked on it.
And then that went on to the standards track. So this is another way we
innovate and work with the communities to bring things forward.
So this is really important for publishers because it is an API basically that points
to the rights management and what is around an image or a video,
what is associated with it. So this is a way to provide licensing
information about a specific resource. JSON-LD, we’re looking at possibly
adding new features to that. We may reopen that work. And data on the
web best practices became a recommendation last year, and there’s a data model and
lots of other things going on there. And then finally, the last area,
delighted that Liisa actually previewed this a bit. We have a community group
in W3C that’s working on WebVR, very large global community group.
They’ve held workshops and they are looking at bringing it under the standards
track this year. So if immersive reading experiences interactivity is part of your
shiny object that you’re interested in, please join the free community group,
and we think this also will be interesting for educational publishers
particularly those doing training. Think about looking at automotive engine
and/or medical and being able to literally see in 3D and interact with it.
So the potential there is very exciting. It’s still right now a bit focused heavy
with the entertainment segment. Coming out of the gaming,
we have a lot of entertainment companies in W3C, but it’s open to everyone.
So we really hope to hear more of the publishing use cases in the WebVR area.
So we’ve gone through, like Dickens, a lot of interesting characters here
today. We talked a little bit about the publishing at W3C activities.
We talked about these characters known as WOFF and POE and i18n, web annotations,
WebVR. Lots of acronyms we use at W3C unfortunately that sometimes needs some
explaining, but we were hoping that the storytelling and these characters will be
compelling as some of the Dickens novels are with his interesting characters for
you and that we hope to see more of you participating in whatever ways you can and
your organisations, and spread the word. And so I think you’re going to wrap us up
about the next steps with the model [SP]. – Sure. Where do we go next?
There’s still a lot of work to do. We have a face-to-face meeting for the
Publishing Working Group here in Toronto, talk to me about attending,
and there’s still a ton of work to do. I said we just have first public working
drafts, we need to bring these all to TR. You can learn what all of these cool
acronyms mean if you come work with me, and thank you very much.
We now have time for questions. We have 3 minutes and 42 seconds. – [Female 2] So let’s say that I just
joined the W3C either in the community group or the working group or something
like that, and I start seeing all of these emails coming through from the GitHub
repository and I’m starting to freak out because I have no idea what’s going
on. Are there any resources for me? – Yes, there are. – Like full stop, just say yes
and then we’ll… – So first of all, there…well,
Karen do you want to start and then I’ll tell people what I do
in the publishing group? – So first of all, please feel free to
reach out to folks like myself. My role is to help educate and provide an
easy on-ramp for whatever interest areas you might have in W3C that may be
paid or not paid. It doesn’t matter, that’s part of my role,
is community building and outreach. So we do many, many briefings.
We’ve also begun doing more webinars, some with other associations like BISG
to help do some of this education. So we know there’s a lot of email
going on at W3C. So be forewarned, if you do join an email list,
that is a lot of activity. So you do have to sort through that,
but we’re very generous and happy to have conversations and help explain where
things are and what’s going on. – So for the Publishing Working Group,
I send a welcome email which also has a firehose of information.
It has been described as a firehose. It can be a little bit overwhelming
at first. I also started to do a newbie meeting. We had one so far.
I got great feedback from the newer members. The newer members are
now editing our newbie page to make it friendlier for new people because what
happens if you have people who have been involved for five years,
writing a welcome page for new members, they don’t…the eyes are like the ones
with cataracts instead of the newborn eyes. So we’re working on that.
I also am a member of the W3C’s Working Group Effectiveness Taskforce and we’re
trying to bring some of these welcome to new members’ things to the whole W3C
that’s chaired by the wonderful Natasha Rooney. And so we’re trying to
figure out how to ease people into the W3C a little bit more because like you come
in, and all of a sudden, there’s like, “Oh my God, the entire web wants my help.”
And I have no idea what real-time communication means,
and that’s okay because you don’t have to. And you don’t need to be an expert in
every area. One thing that we like to stress in the publishing activity
is that you don’t have to be a technical expert. We need your business
cases. We need your little tiny niche area of expertise. Don’t be overwhelmed.
We were all overwhelmed when we started. I said this yesterday when we were having
the discussion about volunteerism. For the first like two years that I was
involved in the IDPF, I didn’t talk. I just scribed every meeting because
I felt like I couldn’t contribute everything else. If all you do is
come to a meeting and listen, you’re still helping.
You’re probably helping yourself more than anybody else, but it’s still great. But that’s really…we do try to be
welcoming. I’m pretty approachable, I think. People tend to come to me
with their, like, life issues, not just their W3C issues. So you
can come to me with questions and I might send you on to one of my
delegates, but that’s how we swing. Any other questions? – [Male 1] I’m just wondering how,
in your membership, what group of children’s publishers are there and who
is representing improvements in the quality of, say, picture books in EPUB? – I think Liisa’s probably best
equipped to answer that. – [Liisa] I think a lot of…so the standard
is not necessarily about improving the quality of the books,
it’s about making sure that the features are in the standards so that we can
support the books. And we haven’t seen a lot of requests for new features for
children’s books. There are implementation issues with getting some of those things
supported in reading systems which is some of the work that we do between the
Publishing Business Group in W3C and all of the other standards organisations and
best practices organisations out there. It’s also a piece of what Rachel’s been
gathering for the community group in terms of best practices so that if somebody
solved a problem, we can write it up as the best practice so it can be
shared among the larger community. And as a publisher of children’s books,
I actually do a lot of that representing what we have, but it would be
great to have more voices. – And Liisa mentioned before that she’s
putting together a grid to compile all of these gripes that we have.
If you want to contribute to that, I think emailing Liisa or joining the
community group might be the best way to get involved in that. – And we like to call it requirements,
not gripes. – Right, good point. Requirements. – [Male 2] I was just curious to hear you
talk of or either of you talk a little bit about how are you able to operate now
versus the IDPF prior to joining W3C. And just what’s been working for this
event, what’s been working about this for you? – That’s an interesting question and I
certainly would invite other members, former members of the IDPF to comment.
I would say that one of the things that the IDPF combining with W3C brought was
a massive force of experts who got the attention of our traditional web community
for whom anytime we introduced a new vertical, whether it was
media and entertainment or telco, it’s always a bit of a disruption
and a learning curve for them. And to have so many experts come
forward from publishing and say, “This is really important to our work and
you need to pay attention to this and help us fix it,” I think that’s probably
one of the best impacts and the respect that the publishing folks have gained with
the communities and trying to bring them together, I think,
has been very positive for W3C. I like to tell a story, over 10 years ago,
we started a vertical with media and entertainment. And I remember doing a
workshop and some of the traditional web developers were mystified why the media
people would want more than one channel for video on the web.
And the media people were just astonished. Like how could you not understand
that we need multiple channels? And so it’s those kinds of dialogues that
really help to bring the consciousness and education forward. And the brave souls
that sometimes say, you know, “This really, really is important.”
You may not understand why, but there’s millions of people that are
going to depend on whatever solution that is being proposed. So thank you
for the question. – I would also say that the shift to the
W3C has helped us to get more international participation and
wider participation. You know, there was this sort of misconception about
the work that we were doing in the IDPF that it was incredibly broad and very
book-focused. And it really…like the same people who were driving that work
are driving the work now. There’s just more people involved
and broader groups involved in it. So I think it’s been really good,
and seeing where we’re headed now with 3.2 this year and getting that up to an
ISO spec is a big move forward. – From my perspective,
it made my job easier because I was chairing two working groups
and now I chair one. – [Male 3] What I’m sort of countering
with the perceptually disabled community and wanting to access EPUB is has there
been any thought of how to promote EPUB to the educational community because what
we’re encountering is we provide Carswell accessible Word, accessible PDF.
But I’m seeing the future as EPUB yet I’m seeing also a resistance because it’s new.
It’s almost like VHS versus Beta, and everybody’s thinking Beta was better
but VHS was the one that was preferred because it was just easier.
Is there a thought towards how to promote the benefits of EPUB to the educational
community? And by promote I mean help them…so if they get a file that’s good
from a publisher but that may not meet the students’ particular needs where
they can actually change the file. – So some of the work in the community
group might help you a little bit, some of the best practices work.
I know that there are some organisations like BISG that are starting to do some
kind of publicity campaigns around EPUB. I hope that the work on metadata will help
because once people realise what accessibility features an EPUB has,
that might actually make it more appealing to a DSS office. A lot of what is lacking
around adoption in the education market, I think, is a lack of awareness of
the possibilities, and certainly, organisations like VitalSource where a lot
of the education titles are published are doing a lot to support the education
for…the education of the marketplace not the education titles, per se.
So when retailers in particular start supporting metadata and exposing the
metadata in their stores so that I go to the bookstore and I don’t
just see something like title, but I can click on that and I can see
has alt text, has image descriptions, has closed captioning,
I think that the problems might start to fade away, but it’s also about
education which some…you know, I don’t know that that’s necessarily
something that the W3C would do. The W3C is not generally in the area of
advocating more in spec rating, but I think the community group might
start to address that. And if not, that group itself, the group that focuses
on liaising with external groups might be able to help you. So that
is in the business group. – Yeah, we love your ideas on that.
Maybe during break… – Again, I’m just throwing the idea out.
It would be useful at a forum like this to invite frontline users to say…and by
frontline users, I’m not just talking about the advisers that support the
students, but imagine having your STEM using students who are perceptually
disabled saying, “This is what we encounter on a regular basis.”
It’s not just the…I got an email yesterday. The individual,
I provided him with Braille and accessible Word, and he said he couldn’t
listen to it and type at the same time. So I actually asked for a separate DAISY
file. And it’s not kind of…I never want perfect to be the enemy of the good.
I love where we’re going. It’s just the resistance I’m seeing is
because they don’t know how to make the changes when they’re going to be required
because they could get a great file from a publisher, but it may not meet that
student’s particular needs so it has to be augmented to meet those needs. – That’s great feedback. Rachel,
did you want to add anything to that? – [Rachel] So I can help a little bit
there. So we’re starting sort of like a ground-up effort for education.
So we have a taskforce in BISG that’s focused on this. It’s largely educational
publishers. We also have a working group in IMS Global that’s focused on EPUB
for education as a profile and how that impacts university students.
And then we’re also running workshops at various conferences.
So we did one in accessing higher ground this year which was just like a
walkthrough of what the EPUB is and how it works, and also like a basic
idea of what the structure is. We’re doing a couple at CSUN right now.
We have a few different teams that are talking about it. So we’re hoping to
get some outreach there as well. And then we’re also sort of like doing
some outreach on campus and talking to DSS offices and talking to professors and
just trying to get them a little bit more familiar and comfortable with the format. – Thank you. You’ve been a great audience.
Thank you so much for the extra time.