Capitalism and Socialism: Crash Course World History #33

Capitalism and Socialism: Crash Course World History #33


Hi, I’m John Green, this is Crash Course World
History, and today we’re going to talk about capitalism. Yeah, Mr. Green, capitalism just turns men
into wolves. Your purportedly free markets only makes slave of us all.. Oh god Stan, it’s me from college. Me from
the past has become me from college. This is a disaster! The reason he’s so unbearable,
Stan, is that he refuses to recognize the legitimacy of other people’s narratives. And
that means that he will never ever be able to have a productive conversation with another
human in his entire life. So listen, me from the past. I’m gonna disappoint
you by being too capitalist. And I’m gonna disappoint a lot of other people by not being
capitalist enough. And I’m gonna disappoint the historians by not using enough jargon.
But what can I do? We only have twelve minutes! Fortunately, capitalism is all about efficiency. So let’s do this, me from college: Randy [Ransom]
Riggs becomes a best-selling author, Josh Radnor stars in a great sitcom, it is NOT
going to work out with Emily, and do NOT go to Alaska with a girl you’ve known for ten
days. Okay, let’s talk capitalism. So capitalism is an economic system, but it’s
also a cultural system. It’s characterized by innovation and investment to increase wealth.
But today, we’re going to focus on production and how industrial capitalism changed it.
Stan, I can’t wear these emblems of the bourgeoisie while Karl Marx himself is looking at me,
it’s ridiculous. I’m changing! Very hard to take off a shirt
dramatically. So let’s say it’s 1200 CE and you’re a rug
merchant. Just like merchants today, you sometimes need to borrow money in order to buy the rugs
you want to resell at a profit, and then you pay that money back, often with interest,
once you’ve resold the rugs. This is called mercantile capitalism, and it was a global
phenomenon, from the Chinese, to the Indian Ocean trade network, to Muslim merchants who
would sponsor trade caravans across the Sahara. But by the 17th century, merchants in the
Netherlands and in Britain had expanded upon this idea to create joint stock companies.
Those companies could finance bigger trade missions and also spread the risk of international
trade. But the thing about international trade is that sometimes boats sink or they get taken
by pirates, and while that’s bad if you’re a sailor because, you know, you lose your
life, it’s really bad if you’re a mercantile capitalist because you lost all your money.
But if you own one-tenth of ten boats, your risk is much better managed. That kind of
investment definitely increased wealth, but it only affected a sliver of the population
and it didn’t create a culture of capitalism. Industrial capitalism was something altogether
different, both in scale and in practice. Let’s use Joyce Appleby’s definition of industrial
capitalism: “An economic system that relies on investment of capital in machines and technology that
are used to increase production of marketable goods.” So imagine that someone made a Stan machine
(by the way Stan, this is a remarkable likeness) and that Stan machine could produce and direct
10 times more episodes of Crash Course than a human Stan. Well, of course, even if there
are upfront costs I’m going to invest in a Stan machine so I can start cranking out 10
times the knowledge – Stan, are you focusing on the robot instead of me? I AM THE STAR
OF THE SHOW. Stanbot, you’re going behind the globe. So when most of us think about capitalism,
especially when we think about its downsides – long hours, low wages, miserable working
conditions, child labor, unemployed Stans – that’s what we’re thinking about. Now admittedly,
this is just one definition of industrial capitalism among many, but it’s the definition
we’re going with. All right, let’s go to the Thought Bubble.
Industrial capitalism developed first in Britain in the 19th century. Britain had a bunch of
advantages – it was the dominant power on the seas, and it was making good money off
its trade with its colonies, including the slave trade; also, the growth of capitalism
was helped by the half-century of civil unrest that resulted from the 17th century English
Civil War. Now, I’m not advocating for civil wars or
anything but in this particular case it was useful because before the war, the British
crown had put a lot of regulations on the economy: complicated licenses, royal monopolies,
etc. But during the turmoil it couldn’t enforce them, which made for freer markets. Another factor was a remarkable increase in
agricultural productivity in the 16th century. As food prices started to rise, it became
profitable for farmers, both large and small, to invest in agricultural technologies that
would improve crop yields. Those higher prices for grain probably resulted from population
growth, which in turn was encouraged by increased production of food crops. A number of these agricultural improvements
came from the Dutch, who had chronic problems feeding themselves, and discovered that planting
different kinds of crops, like clover, that added nitrogen to the soil and could be used
to feed livestock at the same time, meant that more fields could be used at once. This
increased productivity, eventually brought down prices, and this encouraged further innovation in
order to increase yield to make up for the drop in prices. Lower food prices had an added benefit: since
food cost less and wages in England remained high, workers would have more disposable income,
which meant that if there were consumer goods available, they would be consumed, which incentivized
people to make consumer goods more efficiently, and therefore more cheaply. You can see how
this positive feedback loop leads to more food, and more stuff, culminating in a world
where people have so much stuff that we must rent space to store it, and so much food that
obesity has become a bigger killer than starvation. Thanks, Thought Bubble. So this increased productivity also meant
that fewer people needed to work in agriculture in order to feed the population. To put this
in perspective, in 1520, 80% of the English population worked the land. By 1800, only
36% of adult male laborers were working in agriculture, and by 1850, that percentage
had dropped to 25. This meant that when the factories started
humming, there were plenty of workers to hum along with them. Especially child laborers.
So far all this sounds pretty good, right? I mean, except for the child labor – who wouldn’t
want more, cheaper food? Yeah, well, not so fast. One of the ways the British achieved all this
agricultural productivity was through the process of enclosure, whereby landlords would
reclaim and privatize fields that for centuries had been held in common by multiple tenants.
This increased agricultural productivity, but it also impoverished many tenant farmers,
many of whom lost their livelihoods. Okay, for our purposes capitalism is also
a cultural system, rooted in the need of private investors to turn a profit. So the real change
needed here was a change of mind. People had to develop the capitalist values of taking
risks and appreciating innovation. And they had to come to believe that making an upfront
investment in something like a Stan Machine could pay for itself and then some. One of the reasons that these values developed
in Britain was that the people who initially held them were really good at publicizing
them. Writers like Thomas Mun, who worked for the English East India Company, exposed
people to the idea that the economy was controlled by markets. And other writers popularized
the idea that it was human nature for individuals to participate in markets as rational actors. Even our language changed: the word “individuals”
did not apply to persons until the 17th century. And in the 18th century, a “career” still
referred only to horses’ racing lives. Perhaps the most important idea that was popularized
in England was that men and women were consumers as well as producers and that this was actually
a good thing because the desire to consume manufactured goods could spur economic growth.
“The main spur to trade, or rather to industry and ingenuity, is the exorbitant appetite
of men, which they will take pain to gratify,” so wrote John Cary, one of capitalism’s cheerleaders,
in 1695, and in talking about our appetite, he wasn’t just talking about food. That doesn’t
seem radical now, but it sure did back then. So here in the 21st century it’s clear that
industrial capitalism – at least for now – has won. [Aside to Marx] Sorry buddy, but you know,
you gave it a good run. You didn’t know about Stalin. But capitalism isn’t without its problems,
or its critics, and there were certainly lots of shortcomings to industrial capitalism in
the 19th century. Working conditions were awful. Days were long, arduous, and monotonous.
Workers lived in conditions that people living in the developed world today would associate
with abject poverty. One way that workers responded to these conditions was by organizing
into labor unions. Another response was in many cases purely theoretical: socialism,
most famously Marxian socialism. I should probably point out here that socialism
is an imperfect opposite to capitalism, even though the two are often juxtaposed. Capitalism’s
defenders like to point out that it’s “natural,” meaning that if left to our own devices, humans
would construct economic relationships that resemble capitalism. Socialism, at least in
its modern incarnations, makes fewer pretenses towards being an expression of human nature;
it’s the result of human choice and human planning. So, socialism, as an intellectual construct,
began in France. How’d I do, Stan? Mm, in the border between Egypt and Libya. There were two branches of socialism in France,
Utopian and revolutionary. Utopian socialism is often associated with Comte de Saint Simon
and Charles Fourier, both of whom rejected revolutionary action after having seen the
disaster of the French Revolution. Both were critical of capitalism and while
Fourier is usually a punchline in history classes because he believed that, in his ideal
socialist world, the seas would turn to lemonade, he was right that human beings have desires
that go beyond basic self interest, and that we aren’t always economically rational actors. The other French socialists were the revolutionaries,
and they saw the French Revolution, even its violence, in a much more positive light. The
most important of these revolutionaries was Auguste Blanqui, and we associate a lot of
his ideas with communism, which is a term that he used. Like the Utopians, he criticized
capitalism, but he believed that it could only be overthrown through violent revolution
by the working classes. However, while Blanqui thought that the workers
would come to dominate a communist world, he was an elitist. And he believed that workers
on their own could never, on their own, overcome their superstitions and their prejudices in
order to throw off bourgeois oppression. And that brings us to Karl Marx, whose ideas
and beard cast a shadow over most of the 20th century. Oh, it’s time for the Open Letter?
An Open Letter to Karl Marx’s Beard. But, first, let’s see what’s in the secret
compartment today. Oh, robots. Stan Bots! Two Stan Bots, one of them female! Now I own
all the means of production. You’re officially useless to me, Stan. Now, turn the camera
off. Turn the ca– I’m going to have to get up and turn the camera off? Stan Bot,
go turn the camera off. Hey there, Karl Marx’s beard. Wow, you are intense. Karl Marx, these days
there are a lot of young men who think beards are cool. Beard lovers, if you will. Those
aren’t beards, those are glorified milk mustaches. I mean, I haven’t shaved for
a couple weeks, Karl Marx, but I’m not claiming a beard. You don’t get a beard by being lazy, you
get a beard by being a committed revolutionary. That’s why hardcore Marxists are literally
known as “Bearded Marxists.” These days, that’s an insult. But you know what, Karl
Marx, when I look back at history, I prefer the bearded communists. Let’s talk about
some communists who didn’t have beards: Mao Zedong, Pol Pot, Kim Jong-il, Joseph freakin’
Stalin with his face caterpillar. So, yeah, Karl Marx’s beard, it’s my great
regret to inform you that there are some paltry beards trying to take up the class struggle
these days. Best Wishes, John Green Although he’s often considered the father
of communism, because he co-wrote The Communist Manifesto, Marx was above all a philosopher
and a historian. It’s just that, unlike many philosophers and historians, he advocated
for revolution. His greatest work, Das Kapital, sets out to
explain the world of the 19th century in historical and philosophical terms. Marx’s thinking
is deep and dense and we’re low on time, but I want to introduce one of his ideas,
that of class struggle. So, for Marx, the focus isn’t on the class,
it’s on the struggle. Basically Marx believed that classes don’t only struggle to make
history, but that the struggle is what makes classes into themselves. The idea is that
through conflict, classes develop a sense of themselves, and without conflict, there
is no such thing as class consciousness. So, Marx was writing in 19th century England
and there were two classes that mattered: the workers and the capitalists. The capitalists
owned most of the factors of production (in this case, land and the capital to invest
in factories). The workers just had their labor. So, the class struggle here is between
capitalists, who want labor at the lowest possible price, and the workers who want to
be paid as much as possible for their work. There are two key ideas that underlie this
theory of class struggle. First, Marx believed that “production,” or work, was the thing
that gave life material meaning. Second, is that we are by nature social animals. We work
together, we collaborate, we are more efficient when we share resources. Marx’s criticism of capitalism is that capitalism
replaces this egalitarian collaboration with conflict. And that means that it isn’t a
natural system after all. And by arguing that capitalism actually isn’t consistent with
human nature, Marx sought to empower the workers. That’s a lot more attractive than Blanqui’s
elitist socialism, and while purportedly Marxist states like the USSR usually abandon worker
empowerment pretty quickly, the idea of protecting our collective interest remains powerful.
That’s where we’ll have to leave it for now, lest I start reading from The Communist
Manifesto. But, ultimately socialism has not succeeded
in supplanting capitalism, as its proponents had hoped. In the United States, at least,
“socialism” has become something of a dirty word. So, industrial capitalism certainly seems
to have won out, and in terms of material well-being and access to goods and services for
people around the world, that’s probably a good thing. Ugh, you keep falling over. You’re a great
bit, but a very flimsy one. Actually, come to think of it, you’re more of an 8-bit. But how and to what extent we use socialist
principles to regulate free markets remains an open question, and one that is answered
very differently in, say, Sweden than in the United States. And this, I would argue, is
where Marx still matters. Is capitalist competition natural and good,
or should there be systems in place to check it for the sake of our collective well-being?
Should we band together to provide health care for the sick, or pensions for the old?
Should government run businesses, and if so, which ones? The mail delivery business? The
airport security business? The education business? Those are the places where industrial capitalism
and socialism are still competing. And in that sense, at least, the struggle continues.
Thanks for watching, I’ll see you next week. Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan
Muller. Our script supervisor is Danica Johnson. The show is written by my high school history
teacher, Raoul Meyer and myself. We’re ably interned by Meredith Danko. And our graphics
team is Thought Bubble. Last week’s phrase of the week was “the
TARDIS,” so you can stop suggesting that now! If you want to suggest future phrases
of the week or guess at this week’s, you can do so in comments, where you can also
ask questions about today’s video that will be answered by our team of historians. Thanks for watching Crash Course, and as we
say in my hometown, Don’t Forget To Be Awesome. All right, Stan, bring the movie magic…
Yes!

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About the Author: Oren Garnes

100 Comments

  1. I think what Marx, C Wright Mills and others miss is that class, status and power exist in every strata and grouping that humans form. Marx and Mills put forth that without the individuals that have formed some kind of "collective effort entity" of the bourgeois, class, status and power would not exist and that is simply not true. Research into tribal structures always shows hierarchies. Go to any place that humans gather and their will always be hierarchies, even if it is not stated or acknowledged they are there. Just go and research why most hippie communes fail (drugs, orgies, politics). Marx, i've been told, is also the guy that started this "all war is started by religion" nonsense .
    Bias: I don't really support either system as i've seen the stuff the do that's bad but have no idea what's better

  2. But that stan machine caused global worming and now the owner will not slow dont the production lol so communism has a valid point

  3. These terms only become dirty when one turns them like into a religious idea ….a"thing" to be specifically bowed down to worshipped as an entity or something. Capitalism is just natural DUHH where someone realizes they have an in demand product and so they buckle down and meet the need. It could be raising sheep or making shovels. it does not matter if people are pounding on your door "PLEASE sir I NEED what you have" then one could argue it almost becomes criminal Not to help them (and yourself) out …not everyone can make shovels or raise sheep.
    In a similar way socialism is occurring the moment people get together and come up with ways everyone can share a common goal …..building and maintaining community roads for example is total socialism if you ask me ….everyone agrees that the property the roads are built on belong to EVERYONE and everyone can use and benefit from them and everyone shares the financial burden to maintain/improve/expand them….I suppose a radical capitalist might ONLY want the roads to belong to privately held companies or individuals but seriously though how often is that even going to be possible not to mention how wrong it might go if the person in control becomes mentally askewe ….I mean EVERYONE needs the roads to be a known reliable quantity!

    Obviously then something's are more given to be the collective efforts of everyone and other things benefit so much by competition and free market. Would we REALLY want police and military to be privatized for profit business ventures??? I think that is why healthcare is such a sensitive topic …..there is a shitload of MONEY to be made on healthcare but SHOULD the whole thing be money making Enterprise where quality healthcare is ONLY for folks with money? Or roads ONLY for folks with money? I mean mostly everyone starts out with nothing…and it is in our youth that our bodies are prime for making all those ESSENTIALLY VITAL babies society HAS TO maintain a constant new supply of! Healthcare HAS to be within reach of young families! EVEN in between jobs etc! SOME level of socialized health Care therefore IS mandatory no matter how you lean! What I see happening in the US is people who don't have the means finally going to an ER where face it they DON'T PAY! Everyone ELSE pays somehow…OF COURSE WE DO! But this stubborn mindset "ONE WAY" just stops any kind of sensible solution from being implemented! SOME form of socialized medicine is ABSOLUTELY required! If not an actual system then it will stay the screwed up way it is…inefficient STUPID! How hard would it be or how much could it possibly cost to have FREE to ALL socialized clinic level healthcare?? Clinics EVERYONE ANYONE could just walk into and get antibiotics for an ear infection or a sprained ankle wrapped or a cut sutured etc?? Cause right now people without means waltz into the ERs coast to coast to coast and get service ANYWAY which ONLY people with means using the hospital wind up paying for! How unfair is THAT? If clinic level was free EVERYONE could use it for minor stuff with would LOWER hospital costs! But can anyone even talk about such a DUHH answer? NO because everything is all black or white and no in between STUPID

  4. Work everyday for their bosses and think themselves as masters, work everyday for their bosses and think themselves as masters that's the difference between communism and capitalism.

  5. Its another noncens video. We live in a capitalistic world but DO you really think that 1% should own THE globe based on capital?? Dont you think we need public places free air,water,Snow,rain?? Becuse My raindrops that i bought last year has Been stolen by Navy Seals.

  6. America used to be Socialism a dark past that we should not repeat we shouldn't even have Thanksgiving because Thanksgiving is a Socialist Holiday.

  7. Yes capitalism isn’t perfect but communism and a idea while high and just that and it made people starve and gave power to one man

  8. In America today, citizens are enslaved to fund the deep State agenda through "climate change" taxes, Christan citizens are forced to fund abortions against their moral beliefs, we are forced to pay for a corrupt public school system even if we DON'T have children in school or at all! Citizens are forced to pay for sanctuarycities and daca recipients! $ is stolen to give to other countries in the name of "humanitarian aid", the 1% richest population & multi-billion dollar corporations are given loopholes to avoid paying taxes, same with the illegals they for many years received tax refunds for children they didn't have or weren't in the US! Property taxes are communist and yet forced upon all citizens even the extreme poor who become homeless if they can't pay the tax! And so much more communist & socialistic programs! & yet, the lawmakers, pubs, Dems and media scream that helping our own legal law-abiding American poor citizens would be socialism…. WAT? Lawmakers, politicians and society refuse to forgive college loans for struggling legal law-abiding Americans! They refuse to help our own poor who are dying on the streets! I say they are hypocrites! These lawmakers are either blind, stupid or corrupt! Too many US citizens follow the pubs or Dems blindly! Wake up America! We are being played! And America is only as strong as our weakest legal American citizen!

  9. I'm not a communist but to really understand capitalism think of it like this "all American presidents after World War II should have been hung for commiting war crimes or crimes against humanity and all their crimes were greed driven. If you like being exploited just lie to say capitalism is good. Lucifer is a capitalist because all that matters to him is power and that is probably the reason why freemasons /Illuminati worship Lucifer because they have the same dream. look up -""Albert pike god of Illuminati ""
    Aldert pike is the highest member of Freemasonry who planned World War 1,2 and 3 ,look up -"Albert pikes plan for World War 1 ,2 and 3.
    His plan is to use the three steps of the HEGELIAN DIALICT ,
    1-thesis (create the problem)
    2-antithesis (control the reaction "propaganda ")
    3-synthesis (offer the solution)

    "history is not the truth it is only what people (the elite) have agreed upon.
    -Napolian

    We were even warned by JESUS CHRIST -"MONEY IS THE ROOT TO ALL EVIL.

    Yes the devil is a capitalist and this comment is the truth.
    If you would like to tell me I'm wrong please leave a comment and we will talk about it.
    American people are brainwashed to believe capitalism is good and socialisum is bad. Most live one pay away from homelessness .
    Most nations have medicare but America is still living with no medical cover.
    They are that brainwashed to believe socialism is evil that they never question living one pay from homelessness with no medicare while their government use their tax to bailout the rich (elite) and give the elite tax brakes.
    So it's OK for the rich (elite) to live as socialist but it's not OK for the poor to see a doctor or have medicine.
    It just goes to show propaganda is more powerful than a nation of 300 million individuals ability to think for themselves. (IT'S THAT CRAZY)
    America you are under SATANS spell,
    God told us to work but he also told us to feed the hungry and cloth the naked.
    You believe the lying thieveing mass murdering devils (your leaders) so much that the full wrath of the furie of God is against you all because you follow your leader into wars that only liberated the resources from the the nation who owns the resources.
    1 Peter 2:16 of the Bible says "not to use liberty as a cover for evil "
    Your nation has a crime rate so bad you make the rest of the world look good.
    I live in Australia, we give unemployed people a income and we like it because it keeps the crime rate down not giving the devil a foot hold in their lives. The unemployed don't get that big of an allowance, if they had a job they would make four times more working.
    I think it is fair to call Australia a socialist nation. America has written
    "in god we trust " on their money and i'v already told you who the ruling class's god is. Only the devil would have god written on their money because that (money) is their god.
    The American people MUST separate themselves from their ruling class because of the truth of what they are doing.
    Because the Bible says "whoever follows them will drink down the full wrath of the furie of God"
    And don't forget that God knows the truth and even told us the truth more than 2000 years ago.
    Remember God before country.
    The Antichrist comes under the symbol of the eagle and there are only two places on earth that use the eagles as the symbol of the nation.
    America and the Cathlic's.
    Don't follow the devil to hell even if he is using liberty to rob the world blind.
    And faults teachers (mainstream media) will also find a furious God waiting for them.
    The freemasons who select leaders also control everything you think (all media) but you are free not to follow them to hell, nothing is worth being there forever and ever.

  10. Communism & Socialism vs. Capitalism
    Explained=
    Give a man a fish and he will forever ask for fish
    vs.
    Teach a man to fish and he will be able to or make his own food.
    Its a mind set.

  11. Sad. An entire video covering capitalism vs socialism with no mentioned of Adam Smith. Love most of your videos but this one is stupid or ignorant or both.

  12. I dont know..but the way i see it, capitalist simulate and operate like any socialist but in smaller proportion of any business men's terms of democracy/republic in any governments

  13. The Jews must have something to do with both lol…they must have been in Britain before the coffee shop stock markets! 👍

  14. "We can BE more efficient if we share resources"
    Me:* gives my friend four wooden planks to make a sword *
    Freind:* makes a crafting table even if we already have one *
    Me: So EfFiCiEnT

  15. 11.52. Conflict is NOT consistent with human nature? Have you read ANY history book?
    Meaning: To marxism, humans are naturaly good. That's why it crashes.

  16. You can always judge the health of a nation by how many Socialists there are. Because poor, hungry, desperate masses have nothing to lose so they turn to Socialism. But the average, full-bellied, relaxed masses will never turn to Socialism. Therefore, the government’s job is to ensure the masses are fed, clothed and living comfortably lest they want a revolt. Unless they’re a dictatorship then just go ahead and massacre the Socialists.

  17. I feel like whatever problems exist within industrial capitalism, communism, and socialism are due to extreme interpretations and ideological extremists. Sweden is mix which while not a utopia, has some questions answered seemingly well. I’d like to know what its problems are or if they exist and why. However, here is another story. The only real difference between capitalism and communism historically is the inversion of their assumptions that failed and led to oppressive realities. Communism overestimated people’s capacity to be good while capitalism underestimated the depths of people’s greed. Anyway I love this show!

  18. This video was very poor, even for crash course and above all, was a capitalists understanding of socialism. It would have been a better use of time to do a capitalism video and the a socialism/Marxism/communist video. It would also probably be good to revisit the subject as there’s been significant upheaval in the 7 years since it was released that really shows it to be a product of its time.

  19. "Industrialization brought child labour".. Does… Does he not realize that children used to work in the farms along with their parents before the factories where invented…?

  20. Starts out well, entrepreneurialism.
    Devolves into capitalism and monopolies with politicians protecting those with the big bucks.

  21. All broadcasted on a system and recorded on technology which wouldn't exist without a capitalist system… No amount of a coked up nerd cherry picking and grand standing will change that fact.

  22. Last week in Australia, one of the largest retailers in the nation Woolworths, was caught underpaying staff to the tune of $300mil. How good is capitalism…🙄

  23. I LOVE capitalism! However, I believe that if other folks freely choose to form a socialist or communist collective, that's awesome. I reject the idea that I too must be FORCED to participate. Government = force. Why do other people feel as if they have the inherent right to initiate FORCE upon me (even if these policies arrive via democratic vote)? Anarcho-capitalism or Anarcho-collectivism is really the only legitimate paradigm we can imagine. Free individuals should always have the option to "opt out".

  24. Fun fact the Incan Empire developed the concept of socialism before Karl Marx and worked successfully before the European contact occurred

  25. capitalism is all about efficiency, because efficiency is to rack up money, and the goal in capitalism is racking up money. circular logic yaaay

  26. 5 million people died in north korea just only due to western capitalism
    power struggle against Russia.
    anyway I'm not gonna put other countries like Vietnam,Egypt etc..etc..
    middle east in the comment section because YouTube have a 800 word
    limit. The only thing that I have to say is Our evolution evolve us to
    become more cooperative with others not competitive like those animals
    in the animal kingdom. Capitalism is all about competition and
    communism or super socialism is all about cooperation. If were on a
    giant space-ship called earth you think who's more applicable for our
    survival?

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